Garden Basics with Farmer Fred

043 Veggies for Fall

September 03, 2020 Fred Hoffman Season 1 Episode 43
Garden Basics with Farmer Fred
043 Veggies for Fall
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Veggies for Fall
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Garden Basics with Farmer Fred
043 Veggies for Fall
Sep 03, 2020 Season 1 Episode 43
Fred Hoffman

For those of you who live in the West, the South, parts of the Midwest and mid-Atlantic states, (USDA Zones 7, 8, and 9) we get down to specifics in this episode on the best varieties of vegetables to grow during the cooler months of fall and winter:  lettuce, spinach, Swiss Chard, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cilantro, broccoli (pictured), cauliflower, beets, snow peas, fava beans, carrots, celery, onions, garlic, parsnips, shallots and turnips.

We’ll tell you about some tasty, easy to grow varieties that maybe you’ve never eaten, such as pak choi, black seeded simpson lettuce, Danvers half long carrots, and Romanesco broccoli. What’s that? Give a listen. 

It’s Episode 43 of Garden Basics with Farmer Fred, “Veggies for Fall”. Plus, we’ll tell you why now is a good time to give a final 2020 feeding to your fruit trees.

We learn something new, every time, on Garden Basics with Farmer Fred.  And we will do it all in under 30 minutes.

Links
USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map
Tips for the Fall and Winter Vegetable Garden
Podcast Episode 18: "Greenhouse Basics"

More info including live links, product information, transcripts, and chapters available at the home site for Garden Basics with Farmer Fred.

Garden Basics comes out every Tuesday and Friday. It's available wherever podcasts are found.

Got a garden question? Call and leave a question, or text us the question: 916-292-8964. E-mail: [email protected] or, leave a question at the Facebook, Twitter or Instagram locations below. Be sure to tell us where you are when you leave a question, because all gardening is local.

All About Farmer Fred:
Farmer Fred website: http://farmerfred.com
Daily Garden tips and snark on Twitter
The Farmer Fred Rant! Blog
Facebook:  "Get Growing with Farmer Fred"
Instagram: farmerfredhoffman
Farmer Fred Garden Videos on YouTube

Show Notes Transcript Chapter Markers

For those of you who live in the West, the South, parts of the Midwest and mid-Atlantic states, (USDA Zones 7, 8, and 9) we get down to specifics in this episode on the best varieties of vegetables to grow during the cooler months of fall and winter:  lettuce, spinach, Swiss Chard, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cilantro, broccoli (pictured), cauliflower, beets, snow peas, fava beans, carrots, celery, onions, garlic, parsnips, shallots and turnips.

We’ll tell you about some tasty, easy to grow varieties that maybe you’ve never eaten, such as pak choi, black seeded simpson lettuce, Danvers half long carrots, and Romanesco broccoli. What’s that? Give a listen. 

It’s Episode 43 of Garden Basics with Farmer Fred, “Veggies for Fall”. Plus, we’ll tell you why now is a good time to give a final 2020 feeding to your fruit trees.

We learn something new, every time, on Garden Basics with Farmer Fred.  And we will do it all in under 30 minutes.

Links
USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map
Tips for the Fall and Winter Vegetable Garden
Podcast Episode 18: "Greenhouse Basics"

More info including live links, product information, transcripts, and chapters available at the home site for Garden Basics with Farmer Fred.

Garden Basics comes out every Tuesday and Friday. It's available wherever podcasts are found.

Got a garden question? Call and leave a question, or text us the question: 916-292-8964. E-mail: [email protected] or, leave a question at the Facebook, Twitter or Instagram locations below. Be sure to tell us where you are when you leave a question, because all gardening is local.

All About Farmer Fred:
Farmer Fred website: http://farmerfred.com
Daily Garden tips and snark on Twitter
The Farmer Fred Rant! Blog
Facebook:  "Get Growing with Farmer Fred"
Instagram: farmerfredhoffman
Farmer Fred Garden Videos on YouTube

Farmer Fred :

Garden Basics with Farmer Fred is brought to you by smart pots the original lightweight, long lasting fabric plant container. it's made in the USA. visit smart pots.com slash Fred for more information and a special discount, that's smart pots.com slash Fred. Welcome to the Garden Basics with Farmer Fred podcast. If you're just a beginning gardener or you want good gardening information, well, you've come to the right spot. On the last episode, we found out some of the basic information you need about establishing your second vegetable garden of 2020: the fall and winter edible garden. Now of course, a lot of this information might rightly be ignored by those of you who are good friends with a snow blower, but for you, I might suggest you go back and listen to Episode 18. It's all about greenhouse basics on how gardeners even in the coldest of climates can successfully have a fall and winter vegetable garden. And now for those of you who live in the West, the South parts of the Midwest and Mid Atlantic states, that would be USDA zone seven, eight and nine, we get down to the specifics in this episode on the best varieties of vegetables to grow during the cooler months. We will tell you about some tasty, easy to grow varieties that maybe you've never eaten. vegetables like Bok choi, black seeded Simpson lettuce, Danvers halflong carrots, and romanesco. What's that? Well, you're gonna have to give a listen. It's Episode 43 of Garden Basics with Farmer Fred: vegetables to grow in the fall and winter plus we will tell you why now is a good time to give a final 2020 feeding to your fruit trees. We learn something new every time on Garden Basics with Farmer Fred and we will do it all in under 30 minutes. Let's go. Well, it's September. It's cool season vegetable time for much of the country. that would be USDA zones 9-8-7 and six if you feel real, real lucky, but let's just concentrate on the warmer areas, let's say south of the Mason Dixon line, along with most of the West Coast and getting into Arizona and probably parts of Texas and Florida, Of course. So let's talk to somebody who's very familiar with cool season vegetables: nursery owner, Don Shor owns Redwood Barn Nursery in Davis (CA), and Don it's cool season vegetable time, and there's a lot to choose from and I hope people don't give up after their summer garden. Maybe they're already tired of tomatoes and squash, they've already started ripping it out. You can put in crops that will do well in the cooler weather ahead.

Don Shor :

It's a funny time of year here because our summer vegetables are still going along strong, but it's a good time to get started on broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, a lot of those things that we grow and harvest in the cool season, but they need a good lead-in.

Farmer Fred :

The first thing people have to do is either plant from seed or pick out the plants and one of the easier things to do is to pick out the plants. go to your favorite local independent nursery. Your local independent nursery is always a good place to shop for plants, because they're going to carry the varieties that are known to do well in your particular area. Yeah, and for instance, here in Northern California, Don, what would you have in stock now is in the way of cool season vegetables for people in Northern California.

Don Shor :

We've just started bringing in broccoli, cauliflower, romanesco of the different types of cabbage, napa cabbage, regular headed cabbages, and we have the very first of the leafy greens, lettuces, spinach, and we always have swiss chard. There's things you can plant now all the way through November here in our area, and many of those are planted again in late winter, early spring, depending on where you're listening. But right now, end of August early September is really the beginning of the planting season for a lot of these things for most of The zones you talked about.

Farmer Fred :

And for those who may be wondering... what the heck is romanesco?

Don Shor :

Well, that's a little controversial, but it's usually described as a type of cauliflower. But to me it looks more like broccoli. And it's fascinating looking. Everyone should grow it once. It makes a huge plant, two to three feet across, makes an enormous head with a fractal pattern, you can look up Fibonacci patterns. This is great for those of you who are homeschooling kids right now. And it's a very tender broccoli like flowerhead that sort of resembles cauliflower and texture but broccoli and flavor.

Farmer Fred :

And but it takes up a lot of room, It sounds like.

Don Shor :

yeah, it's a big plant. And I think people need to know that if you're if you're limited for space, you'll get a lot more for your money out of just regular broccoli that re sprouts, but it's a beautiful plant and very fascinating to grow at least once not difficult. It's very similar to broccoli.

Farmer Fred :

What about containerizing these plants? do many of them take well to containers?

Don Shor :

I do that and I use large containers. I use anything from a seven to a 15 gallon size, you want at least half a cubic foot of potting soil, a cubic foots even better because these are plants with extensive root systems and they don't want to get drought stress. It's very important with all the cole crops, things like that, but they have a good root volume. If you're limited and you have a smaller container, go with leafy greens, lettuces, spinach is you can crowd those together, harvest leaf by leaf and have them over a very long season.

Farmer Fred :

What are the best selling varieties that you've worked with over the years?

Don Shor :

on the broccoli, I'm a big fan of DiCiccio, which is a known heirloom variety. I like the newer ones like green magic, which is very similar. What I suggest home gardeners look for is broccoli that is listed as re sprouting side sprouts, lots of side shoots. commercial growers want a very large head of broccoli, they want to make six inches across and they're just going to get it one and done they get one big head and that's it. You as a home gardener can plant DiCiccio or green magic or Gypsy. Some of these like that have been around for a while and am some newer hybrids, and you'll get one four inch head and immediately new side shoots come up and you can be picking those all winter. So that's really better for the home gardener.

Farmer Fred :

What is the spacing for broccoli I know on some of the older varieties like green Goliath, green Duke and Waltham 29. They recommended planting them 10 inches apart in 20 foot rows,

Don Shor :

you can go closer with these three sprouting types. That sounds about right. I usually go about a foot apart I may crowd them the more you crowd them the smaller those initial heads will be but you'll still get good results. That really I think broccoli and its cousins broccoli Raab things like that are some of the easiest things for home gardeners to start with. Easy to grow from seed, easy to buy implants and they'll produce quickly.

Farmer Fred :

Alright, so much for broccoli. Let's move through the alphabet. What's next

Don Shor :

brussel sprouts ever grown any, Fred?

Farmer Fred :

brussel sprouts are a challenge here because even though they're a cool season crop, if you want to plant them correctly here you have to do it in the heat of July.

Don Shor :

Right they need to go in mid summer. They In a really long start to the growing season, and you're not going to harvest until March, and I guarantee you'll be battling aphids the whole time. So I would not rush into brussels sprouts if you're a novice gardener, but it can be fun to do. But I don't know how much you like brussels sprouts, they're probably not the easiest. So maybe let's move down the alphabet to cabbage.

Farmer Fred :

But let's put one more thing on brussel sprouts, though, for people in other parts of the country, maybe this brussel sprouts are best treated as a spring planted crop.

Don Shor :

Yeah. And they're heavily grown in the coastal areas of California. Most of the production for many years was over in the coast of the Bay Area, that long season planning them early in the spring, cool, mild climate, they'd be harvesting them over a very long period. So it's a challenging one because it takes literally about six months from plant to harvest. Wow.

Farmer Fred :

All right, can we go to the letter C.

Don Shor :

Now remember, these are all related and these are all basically the same plan. They are brassica oleracea. That's the botanical name of the The ancestor of all of them. And from that we got broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, kale, collards, I feel like I'm forgetting something. But they're all basically the same plant. And they like a mild climate to grow and expand and get their major initial start. And then we're harvesting different parts, we're harvesting the flower buds, we're firing the inflorescence. And in some cases, the weird stem like on the kohlrabi, what they want is to have a long period of development, and then initiate with flowering and then we eat them before they get a chance to flower.

Farmer Fred :

Now I'm fond of the Chinese cabbages the bok choy and the pak choi.

Don Shor :

very easy to grow, and you can crowd them. They're a really good one for folks who like stir fry, have maybe one container to crowd a bunch of things in bok choy, pac joi, there's a bunch of different names and different styles of those. You can harvest a leaf at a time or the whole thing. And again, all they want is cool, mild conditions. they're okay with Frost, light frost okay down into the mid 20s Fahrenheit. So they're pretty easy to grow in almost all the climate zones you mentioned. And in coastal areas, the places where tomatoes don't do well peppers don't do well. So let's say Seattle or Corvallis, Oregon. Those are great choices they will do very well for you pretty much your route

Farmer Fred :

cabbage varieties. I'm familiar with our Earliana, Copenhagen market, savoy King and the burpee hybrid. Are there others that you like?

Don Shor :

green acre, that's become one of the most popular because it will produce quickly. You'll look on the label you'll see some cabbages listed as 60 to 70 days others in the 90 day range, the the faster ones are gonna be better for some of the listeners who are in the colder USDA zones. They get them planted now they're listening in September, and we get frost in November there'll be okay with that they can get them out of the ground before a hard freeze sets in. In our climate, those tend to head up in the air in the late winter, early spring. Here we can do all of them because we don't get that cold in the winter. But that green acre in particular is a fast producer.

Farmer Fred :

Let's talk about another relative of those then, cauliflower.

Don Shor :

It's more challenging. The issue with cauliflower is that the heads are susceptible to cold damage and the cosmetic damage on the head. If it's open and we get, you know, open to the sky and we get 24 or 25 degrees, as we can do here in mid December, early January, it'll damage it. So an old technique is to pull those leaves up, crimp them over the top, and that protects the head. And with that colder weather you get a sweeter flavor. It's a little more tricky though, because they're more susceptible to slug damage, aphids and more challenging to manage that way. I would say for again, for novice gardener, broccoli is going to be a lot easier.

Farmer Fred :

All right, well cross cauliflower off the list. No. Okay, try. Yes, exactly. Try everything once. Yeah, one of my favorites to grow and I won't say it's bulletproof. But if you have good deep soil, it's kind of hard to go wrong with carrots.

Don Shor :

Yeah, as long as the soil drains well and you can do them Essentially any time of year as long as the moisture is consistent, so in the summer here, they can be pretty challenging just because of how hot and dry we are. But almost anywhere someone's listening unless the ground freezes over, they can do carrots right on into the winter. They can do them early in the spring even later in the spring. I suggest for areas with denser soil, they use smaller types like little fingered hand danzas haflong, try the round one orbit. Those are cool. And there's a lot of new carrots on the variety, a lot of new, new colorful ones, but I think you really can't go wrong with those first two. I mentioned little finger and Danvers haflong they develop quickly. You get three to four inch, very sweet carrots and remember the sweetness increases a little frost.

Farmer Fred :

I realize you're a nursery owner, but would you buy a six pack of carrots?

Don Shor :

I would sell one. Would I buy one? No.

Farmer Fred :

You would plant from seed.

Don Shor :

Absolutely. The thing to remember though, is carrots germinate very slowly. There's an inhibitor in the seed coat. So first thing is to soak the seed overnight before you plant To try and get some of that inhibitor out of there, then it'll only take three to four weeks to germinate instead of five to six. And an old trick is to plan carrots and radishes together in the same bed and the radishes come up right away. You're harvesting them in five or six weeks, just as you're pulling them out. The carrots are beginning to sprout. So you're making maximum efficient use of your bed and you're in bed waiting and waiting and waiting for the carrots to sprout. You're getting something else out of that bed at the same time.

Farmer Fred :

Another one of those slow to germinate ones I'm trying this year are parsnips it could take three weeks for it to show its face above ground.

Don Shor :

Anything in that family they have an inhibitor in the seed coat and a simple trick is to soak the seed overnight parsley well known for five to six weeks to germinate. Put them in a bowl, pour hot water on them, let it sit overnight, drain that off and that'll help somewhat but you're still looking three to four weeks to germination. Yeah. And all the vegetables I would recommend planting direct in the ground if you can. Yes, people like six packs.

Farmer Fred :

So root crops we're talking carrots we're talking about turnips. parsnips.

Don Shor :

Yeah you grow them.

Farmer Fred :

This is gonna be the first year I'm growing and those will you thought I said parsley I said parsnips as far as taking three weeks to germinate.

Don Shor :

Yeah, they are storing a lot of starch and things. Remember with anything that stores starch is when we get cold, the starch converts to sugar, so even even the leaves of your kale, you'll get better flavor when you get some chilling on them. This is one of the reasons they're popular. Don't harvest your parsnips until Christmas.

Farmer Fred :

I'll remember that. Okay, I'm gonna write that down...

Don Shor :

parsnips until Christmas,

Farmer Fred :

Xmas. Okay, got it. Smart pots are the original award winning fabric planter. They're sold worldwide smart pots are proudly made 100% in the USA, smart pots are also BPA free. There's no risk of chemicals leaching into the soil your herbs, vegetables and other edibles. That's why organic growers prefer smart pots. Smart pots breathable fabric creates a healthy root structure for plants. Smart pots come in a wide array of sizes and they can be reused year after year. Speaking of the cold weather that's on the way if a frost or freeze is in the forecast, moving your frost tender plants that are in the smart pots that have handles makes them even easier to move closer to the house for added warmth or you could even move them inside for the winter. Visit smart pots dot com slash Fred for more information about the complete line of smart pots lightweight fabric containers. It's smart pots, the original award winning fabric planter. Go to smart pots.com slash Fred for more info and that special farmer for a discount on your next smart pot purchase. Go to smart pots.com slash Fred. Let's get back to our conversation discussing fall Planting, we're talking with Don Shor, he owns Redwood barn Nursery in Davis, California. And he's got some tips on planting onions and garlic. But again, it depends where you live.

Don Shor :

It's highly variable, hot areas in the southern part. They generally plant in the fall and they harvest in the spring as much as we do. Here. We plan to November harvest in May to June a little later for Walla Walla is and the colder tier states they plan in the spring for summer harvest. So it's going to vary and you'll have short day, long day intermediate day types. We're very lucky in the Sacramento Valley, we've got all of those we can go any kind of onion we want. Wherever you're listening locally, you should find out what the suitable varieties are for your area. Because there are generally varieties that are better for you and varieties that aren't as suitable.

Farmer Fred :

I love the Stockton red onion and they're hard to find but when you find them, get them

Don Shor :

Good luck getting the red. Stockton yellow, Walla Walla, is a fun one to grow. We always get demand for the red torpedo. It's a little dicey here because frankly It tends to bloom honestly. And when it blooms is hollow, it does keep as well. But yeah, the stocks in red are the new red burger, just an improvement on that. Onions in the Sacramento Valley arrive in November, and you plant them bare root. It's one of the easiest things in the world to do.

Farmer Fred :

Yeah, they usually come bundled 50 to a bundle, you'll be happy with one bundle.

Don Shor :

I get people special ordering 200 to 500 at a time. And they call and call and call I don't know what is this? These old guys in their onions are very concerned about them. But they want to get them in November when they can water them in, get some nitrogen on them early in the season. And then they're just as easy as can be from that point on you just harvest in the early summer, late spring.

Farmer Fred :

And that's part of the beauty of living where we live in other areas of the country. It's more of a challenge. What's nice is that there are some mail order firms like Peaceful Valley they won't even mail out there garlic and onions to a zip code until it's right for that area.

Don Shor :

Right there. big onon grower down in Texas i think is Dixon Dale farms, they know everything there is to know about onions and they shipped millions of them all over the country, and they tell you if they're gonna ship them to you when it's appropriate for your region.

Farmer Fred :

I guess the most frost sensitive plants would be those with water in their leaves like the leafy greens.

Don Shor :

Yeah, and they're easy to grow. But of course, they're a little vulnerable to temperatures in the low 20s or below. So wherever people are listening, they need to take that into consideration. On the plus side, you can plant and harvest right away, you can start picking leaves immediately, especially the leaf lettuces and spinach is and you can let them grow and form ahead and harvest the whole hand if you like. This is probably where early novice gardeners go best is with leafy greens in a barrel or some planter like that crowd a man put in 30 plants I mean, go go overboard, because you can fit them out and use them. And if something is used up, there's a space go by a plant, stick some more in or do some more seed and we're talking about lettuce, Spinach you can do those those stir fry greens like you're talking about earlier, you're going to broccoli Raab, which is used for the stem and for stir frying. And you can even put some swiss chard in there, just be aware that it's ultimately going to outgrow all the other things we talked about. So keep them trimmed and pinched and use them all winter long here in the valley in the Sacramento Valley of California. You'll be harvesting out of that barrel all the way into April. Perhaps in colder climates you hear that you're gonna hear 21-20 degrees Fahrenheit, you might want to rush out and have a salad that night.

Farmer Fred :

Some of my favorite loose leaf lettuce varieties are Ruby, bibb, salad bowl, green ice, head lettuce has always been more of a challenge here in the valley, but it's easy to grow if you live in a milder climate.

Don Shor :

Sure, it just it has more risk of getting problems on the interior of the head balling up and getting a rot. look for the salanova series. These are amazing. They're like bibbs style. They make a perfect little head even when they're only half grown. You can harvest them whole and they look absolutely great. They tastes wonderful. Also romaine. If some of you're listening in places where it's hotter, romaine seems to be more heat tolerant, Lola Rossa. And then an old standby for almost every region I can think of is the black seeded Simpson, which is tolerant of heat and cold. So it can take almost the whole range of the lettuce growing season.

Farmer Fred :

And in the world of spinach I've always loved the bloomsdale long standing and the melody hybrid.

Don Shor :

melody is in this sort of new class of spinach where there's smaller leaves that are thinner, so probably a little more vulnerable to cold, but they're tender. We like to use them in salads. The bloomsdale is cooking spinach, been around forever tough, reliable, and said to be pretty tolerant of both cold and heat. So there's a whole range of spinach now basically thick leaf types and thin leaf types.

Farmer Fred :

And we touched on kale and one thing I've learned about kale over the years is the plain green kale has a better taste to it. Then the ornamental kale which is very colorful, but can be bitter.

Don Shor :

not really intended for eating, Fred. It's like the parsley on your plate of the restaurant, but it's a different plant that kale is incredibly popular. It has become far and away the most popular of the coolest season vegetables for most retailers. It's easy to grow. There's the dyno kales which have the thick kind of lumpy leaves. You've got all kinds of frilly leaf types, they're all very easy to grow and they can go down to 19 or 20 degrees without much difficulty. And I'm said that labor flavor improves it gets sweeter when that happens. Yeah, they are really pretty ornamental ones and we get this question over and over through the winter. Are they edible? Sure. Does that mean palatable tasty? No. You want to eat it? I'd suggest buying lisianiada or Dino kale or something like that. red Russian, winter boa,r bunch of new hybrids is some really cool kale on the market. Now.

Farmer Fred :

Well, one solution around the bitterness of maybe kale or chard, or even spinach, has to do it in a stir fry. And that helps it out.

Don Shor :

Anything that's bitter. This is true if you add salt that masks the bitterness. So the soy sauce takes care of that and you're a stir fry.

Farmer Fred :

Thank you. It's good to know. All right. So most people, if you're a first time gardener and you're going to start a cool season garden for the first time, if you really want success, start with transplants. Yeah, not from seed because it's a much longer process and frankly, we're running out of time here. So people are going to the nursery. What do they look for at the nursery?

Don Shor :

Buy younger plants. I'm really concerned what I see overgrown, rootbound, six packs all these cole crops we just talked about. their roots are bound up the plants going to get off to a slow start. So transplanted if you have to if he's not ready to go into the garden bed, move it up to a four inch pot into some nice soil. Look for healthy green, deep green, not purple discolored ones and not super rootbound in the container. I think that's really important for these winter vegetables. And then when you take it home, what should you do with it if you don't plan on planting at that weekend, well, just this morning, I took some six packs of napa cabbage that were fully rooted in and I didn't want to put them in the ground yet. So I shifted them up into four inch pots, just so they get them off to another little stage two to four weeks of growth before they go in the ground. Keep them growing, keep them moving, don't don't let them sit around in those packs and get rootbound so go ahead and do that extra step, putting them in a reasonable quality potting soil in a four inch pot. The plants will be growing and vigorous when you put them in the ground.

Farmer Fred :

I was chatting recently with Brad Gates, you know him from wild boar farms. He's famous for his tomatoes, and he came up with a rather ingenious way to keep lettuce coming throughout our hot summers. Every week or so, he plants a nursery flat with lettuce seed. he takes a nursery flat, He puts a sheet of newspaper on the bottom, fills it with soil and then scatters lettuce seed or spinach seed or Swiss chard seed into the surface of the soil, keeps it watered, it pops up and within a month, they're using their scissors, cutting it off and serving it in a meal is during the wintertime. You could do that in the wintertime too, and you could do it indoors.

Don Shor :

A lot of places people are listening. You could do it in a sheltered front porch, something like that. I mean look for those microclimates. We're not talking about workplaces where there's snow on the ground, but places where it's maybe in the low 20s they could be a few degrees warmer up close to the house, he's growing microgreens and that's really easy to do. You just you're clipping them and you're not you're never trying to grow them to their full potential. You're just using them as little greens. I know people who do that with cilantro just to have a steady crop of it as well. The other group of plants that we should mention for some listeners are the peas and the beans. The garden not green beans, but fava beans. These are two cool season vegetables that we grow here for different purposes. Peas Of course for shelling, stir fry, depending on the different type. The sugar snaps have just dominated the market Now for 30 years ever since they came on because you can eat them whole, then fava beans are great for building the soil even if you don't happen to eat them. So they're very popular as a cover crop. And those are both planted going into the winter in this climate. Now this is something where you're going to have to find out locally in a colder climate, perhaps USDA zone seven, six, I'm guessing those are planted in the early spring. But here we plant them for the wintertime. And we have the biggest benefit of the fava beans all through the winter suppressing weeds, building the soil, adding nitrogen, and then people harvest and eat the beans as well.

Farmer Fred :

From what I've been reading about USDA zone seven, which includes parts of Arizona and New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina. Those cool weather vegetables can usually be planted outdoors in early February.

Don Shor :

Sure people do that here and there. It's a race against time to see whether they'll develop before we hit our first 90 degree temperatures. So we're doing the same thing but our preferred season is September October, November for best results.

Farmer Fred :

And as we've talked about in previous shows in discussing cool season vegetables, if you live in a colder climate, nothing beats a cold frame or a greenhouse. There you go. Or a root cellar. There you go. Exactly. Don Shor is with Redwood barn Nursery in Davis, California. Some great cool season vegetable recommendations. Don, thank you so much.

Don Shor :

Great to be here, Fred. Thanks.

Farmer Fred :

There's a lot of debate in the world of fruit tree growers about fertilization of fruit trees. Phil Purcel's with Dave Wilson nursery, they're a wholesale grower of fruit and nut trees. They supply nurseries throughout the country. And Phil recommends three fertilizations a year for your deciduous fruit trees.

Phil Pursel :

When we go back and talk about the vigor of a tree, generally speaking is you know, it gets a lot of vigor from fertilizers, and we at Dave Wilson, we'd like to recommend organic fertilizers and it kind of cool if you want to just very easy rule of thumb is you fertilize right after the fruit sets around pea size with organic fruit tree fertilizer. And then once again mid summer with that, you know organic food tree fertilizer. And then towards the end of summer,one more application and that kind of that last application gets the peach tree ready for the winter.

Farmer Fred :

And again, that was for deciduous fruit trees, fruit trees that lose their leaves in the wintertime. But what about the Evergreen fruit trees, especially citrus?

Phil Pursel :

Well, there's a lot of debate on that one and my best advice to you is use a fertilizer that's intended for citrus and read and follow all label directions. But again, organic fertilizers are a good choice for citrus as well.

Farmer Fred :

garden basics comes out every Tuesday and Friday and it's available just about anywhere podcasts are handled. And that includes Apple podcast, Google podcasts, I Heart Radio, overcast, Spotify, stitcher, tune in, and hey, Alexa, play the Garden Basics with Farmer Fred podcast. Would you please? Thank you for listening, subscribing and leaving comments. We appreciate it.

Veggies for Fall
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