This module defines historical trauma and its effects on health outcomes. The conversation defines historical trauma and, based on the work of Eduardo Duran, the interrelated historical periods that create historical trauma. Dr. Laurette McGuire discusses the relationship between diabetes and historical trauma. Julie Andrews from the Native American Resource Center discusses provider patient interactions where providers may feel that the patient is not listening to their advice. Rather, Andrews explains, because of historical trauma patients may not trust the institution or provider.