Are you puzzled by the principle of calories and how they affect your body? Want to comprehend the complex concept of energy intake and expenditures?
In this compelling episode of the me&my health up podcast, host Anthony Hartcher, an esteemed clinical nutritionist, and lifestyle medicine specialist, dissects the complex topic of 'energy intake and expenditures' for us. Anthony elaborates on the different aspects of calories, including their definition, their influence on our bodies, and the intricacies of energy extraction from food.
Anthony also provides enlightening insights into the role of macronutrients, the energy equation, and the impact of alcohol and various body types on energy expenditure. Discover how the body utilises food energy, the significance of thyroid health, and the effectiveness of mindful eating.
Listen in for a comprehensive understanding of how to manage your energy intake and expenditures for optimal health. Tune in to this episode to decode the calorie conundrum and empower yourself with the knowledge to manage your health better.
About me&my health up & Anthony Hartcher
me&my health up seeks to enhance and enlighten the well-being of others. Host Anthony Hartcher is the CEO of me&my health up which provides holistic health solutions using food as medicine, combined with a holistic, balanced, lifestyle approach. Anthony holds three bachelor's degrees in Complementary Medicine; Nutrition and Dietetic Medicine; and Chemical Engineering.
Any information, advice, opinions or statements within it do not constitute medical, health care or other professional advice, and are provided for general information purposes only. All care is taken in the preparation of the information in this Podcast. [Connected Wellness Pty Ltd] operating under the brand of “me&my health up”..click here for more
Welcome back to another exciting episode and very insightful episode of me&my health up. I'm your host, Anthony Hartcher. I'm a clinical nutritionist and lifestyle medicine specialist. The purpose of this podcast is to enhance and enlighten your well being. And I will be doing that for you today on nutrition or some form of nutrition, it is on calories 101 Understanding Energy Intake and Expenditure. Yes, there's a lot of literature out there on calories, and we hear a lot about calorie counting apps and devices. So I'm going to shed some light in terms of understanding energy expenditure and energy intake. So energy intake is from food, energy expenditure is your body utilizing the food energy and generating movement from that essentially, is what we do, whether it be digesting food, we are actually processing the food we eat, and we are extracting the energy out of that food, but it requires energy to actually extract the energy out of the food. And so yes, it can be a bit of a complicated topic, but I'll do my best to simplify it today. And so what is a calorie a calorie is a form of measuring energy of food. And so scientists essentially what they did was grab the food in a sealed apparatus, they then heated that will burn it, they burnt that food, and they still do it today to measure the calorific value of that particular food. And then they're measuring how much energy is expended to lift one liter of water one degree. Okay, so that's how a calorie is or the calorific value of food is calculated. Now, is that indicative as to what's going to happen when you eat that food inside your body? No, it's not. It's just to give us some idea of approximately how much energy is in that food. But does that equate to you extracting that much energy from that food when you digest it? No, it doesn't, we have different efficiencies in terms of that same bit of food, one person can extract more energy from it and someone else doesn't. And you've probably heard of those endomorphic body types or those ectomorphic body types, hands, you've probably heard of fast metabolism and all these things that come into it and think, Well, why can't I eat as much as that person eats? And obviously, you like food? If you're asking that question. And you're thinking, you know, it's that thing of they do this, and I do this, and yet, I'm not progressing in terms of my health goal. And they seem to be looking grades and all those sorts of things. Well, there's many factors that come into play in terms of how to burn that energy more efficiently. And that, you know, around exercise, or how movement in terms of how your body utilizes the intake of food or uptakes, you know, converts that food to energy that's useful for you, which is what our cells do, they get the energy and we create ATP, which helps us generate movement, which allows us to do what our physiology wants to do in terms of manufacture and recycle, and all those great things that our body does makes chemicals, it's, it makes neurotransmitters, communicating amongst cilia cells and all these sorts of things that it needs to manufacture, it needs to do repair work. So all of this requires energy and hence why we need to eat food. Now, in terms of the macro, what's the calorific value of the macros we consume? Well, let's start with what's a macro. So a macro is your fats, your protein and your carbohydrates. Okay, the macros and now what is the calorific value of them. Let's start with protein, for example, there is four calories per gram. Okay, and you're probably thinking, but I talk in kilojoules and calories and all that. So again, kilojoules is just another measure of energy or food and the conversion factor I think is about 4.18. So if your time's the calorie by 4.18, you'll get the kilojoules, okay, just to complicate things, or you can just go into your app and then choose that you want the unit of measure in kilojoules as opposed to calories. And yes, calories and kilocalories are the same, just to make it more or the more confusing for you how much each of these macros contain in terms of energy. So one gram carbohydrates will give you four calories, one gram of protein will give you four calories now one gram of fat It will give you nine calories. Okay? So every one gram of fat you consume, it's nine calories of energy, it's very cap, it's very energy dense. Okay, so fat is very energy dense hence why when we started looking at obesity and how to break the trend and how to reduce obesity, what what was done is essentially remove fat from food. However, what we realised we took the fat out and put more carbohydrates in there, and epidemic or pandemic didn't go away, we still have a overweight obesity problem today. And you know, a simple reason for that is we just consume more calories than what we expend. It's simple. And as much as people say, it's not that simple. It's not as simple as energy in energy out sort of thing. Well, the equation is actually energy in equals energy out plus accumulation. So anyway, that that's probably the more precise energy equation. However, yes, there's different things that can I guess, slow down our ability to burn energy, there's certain like, such as our our metabolic rate, which we'll get to, but the other thing I wanted to cover in terms of is the energy value of alcohol, okay, so guess what one gram of alcohol is, what that equates to is equates to seven calories. Okay, so alcohol is up there, in terms of energy density with fat, and a lot of people that aren't aware of that people consume alcohol, they just drink it and drink it and drink it. However, alcohol, the actual alcohol is very calorie dense, we extract a lot of calories from alcohol. So if you're consuming large amounts of alcohol, then that could be the reason why you're either not losing weight, or you potentially could be gaining weight is the alcohol consumption, it's very easy, if like just having a binge drink on alcohol is to consume an extra meal, very simple, you know, a bottle of wine, for example, is like having an equivalent to an extra meal per day. So if you have a bottle of wine at night, it's not just a liquid, it's not just a drink. There's another whole meal there. Okay, and I'm talking about that meal being around 500 calories, okay, you might think you're just having three meals a day, plus a bottle of wine, but you're actually having four meals a day, or in terms of equivalent calories. So that's what it is. Now in terms of, you've probably heard of this thermic value of food. So we actually expend energy, breaking down the food in order to extract energy from it, like I mentioned earlier. And so there is a thermic value of food and more fibrous the food is in terms of carbohydrates. So the more amount of fiber, the body works harder to extract that energy. That's why it's better to eat whole foods, then processed foods, because the body does less work with processed food and extract more energy from it. Whereas higher fiber foods, the body is less efficient at extracting energy from it. And it has to work harder to get that energy, okay, that more energy is expenditure expended to get that equivalent energy from the food. So I hope this is making sense. So the takeaway is to eat whole foods or non processed foods, so the whole foods are going to have a higher thermic value. So that means use more energy to extract the energy from that food. Okay. And the other thing is, your body won't be as getting high utilisation in terms of maximum extraction of energy from that food that may have you know, that bit of food may have so many calories in terms of what they're measured in the lab, your body's not extracting all that energy. So you're actually consuming most likely less, yes, highly likely less in terms of what your body actually extracts in terms of energy. And so there was a study done that showed that of you know, two people eating the same food, those two different groups, 40% of those group, or 40% of the participants actually extracted less energy than the other 60%. So the, your ectomorphs, and then you've got your endomorphs so the ones that are extracting more energy, okay, it is what you are, in terms of your constitution, and some people just have much greater utilization or energy efficiency in terms of converting the more amount of energy from that or extracting the maximum amount of energy from that food. So those endomorphs are fantastic when there's a famine, okay. And this probably this year, the human attribute to these types of people back in history, these or in terms of your ancestry, there would have been some sort of famine that they were exposed to, and your body's adapted to that. So yes, like there was all sorts of famines that went all throughout history, but there was particular big famines and as a result of that, the endomorphs had a highest survival of Getting through higher survival rates are getting through, hence more endomorphs got through those famines, and were able to reproduce the ectomorph was the ones that were very inefficient at converting the energy from food and there was less food available, more of those people died off in terms of human evolution, there's probably more maybe I don't know, I haven't looked this up. But there could be more lean the more surround and more, that's it? Well, that is 60% 60-40 from that study. So yes, your energy utilisation might not be as great or it could be better than your neighbor, or who you're comparing yourself to. So there's that side of things I just mentioned the thermic value of food. So eat more whole foods, therefore, your body's got to work harder to extract that energy from that food. And so there's that whole processing of trying to extract the energy and break down the fiber. And that's why people say that eat more celery, there's only so much celery you can eat. Because there's so much work goes into breaking those fibers strains, how those fibers structures of the cell of the salary, there's very little it's like water, water and fiber, and water and insoluble fiber, there's very little calories actually in it, and your body spends a whole lot of breaking it down, but you can't live on celery. Okay? This, it doesn't have all your nutritional intake. So yes, it may be a bit of a fad in terms of just you know, consuming huge amounts of celery to reduce your overall calorific intake. But there's better ways of doing it, there's healthier ways of doing it, which I'll get around to. So in terms of other implicating factors around your metabolic rate is your thyroid. So how well your thyroid is functioning or not functioning can govern your ability to metabolise or extract the energy from food in terms of the your metabolic rate around your thyroid, then what I recommend is managing stress. So managing stress is fundamental. Okay, so managing stress really helps drive better metabolic rates, the ability to burn, ability to expend energy is done through managing your stress. So the more stress you're under, the slower your ability to burn through that food. So what also needs to happen in order to optimize thyroid function is consuming protein. So if you're under consuming protein, then again, and carbohydrates, there's a mixture of carbohydrates and protein that need to be consumed. And if you're if you consume carbohydrates, the right amount, so at least 150 grams per day of carbohydrates, you know, and this is it's dependent on the individual. But generically, the research says you want to be consuming between 100 and 150 grams of carbohydrates per day. And so this doesn't work well with keto. And the other one is protein having protein consuming protein, each meal. So making sure you you do that, and your optimise thyroid function, as well as managing your stress. So managing your stress through mindfulness, mindfulness takes techniques. We've spoken about a lot on this podcast. But just being more in control of your stress, the way you see things, too, I've mentioned before on previous episodes, so your perspective. So if you're only seeing the negative of that particular event, ask yourself, what is the positive? How is it serving you? And what's most important to you? How is it serving you in all areas of life, if you keep asking yourself and balancing that perception, then the that emotional energy that that's expended through that negative you know, that negative thinking will dissipate will your body will getting will dampen the emotional response. And that will enable you to make better decision making processes but and also better balance that thyroid function in terms of supporting the thyroid by managing the stress and not letting the stress get away from you. So yes, thyroid and there's particular nutrients that are really important for thyroid function such as I've been getting adequate amounts of iodine in your diet, where's it come from comes from the sea. So making sure you are eating some form of sea life in order to get that iodine. There's also iodine is added to or fortified in food, so I think it's added to white bread, but I definitely know it's added to table salt. So there's iodine added to table salt. Pretty sure it's highly processed foods generally have fortification because they strip everything out of it. So it possibly is in white bread, but certainly in table salt, or iodised table salt. And it's also in plentiful plentiful amounts of anything coming from the sea, whether it be seaweed, whether it be seafood, iodine is in the in that. Now what else is important in terms of micronutrients for the thyroid, I mentioned the macros, which is carbohydrates and protein, the so you've got the ideen, which is a micronutrients. You've got selenium, selenium, Brazil, nuts are high in selenium, eating nuts and seeds, you're going to contain some form of selenium also from the sea as well. And zinc, and protein generally go together. So you'll get zinc from eating meats. If you don't eat meats, then nuts, seeds, legumes, grains contain zinc. So making sure you're consuming iodine, zinc, selenium, stressing less, and you're consuming some carbohydrates and protein. So in essence, you need a well balanced diet in order to have healthy thyroid function, and to have a healthy metabolic rate. So that's really important managing stress, also, that letting go and not holding on that attaching so attaching yourself to certain outcomes or fantasies or the way the world should be, and it's not. So that sort of holding on will also result in that thyroid slowing. So the ability to let go, such as being able to let things I guess, knowing that time will pass things will get better, not getting too attached to certain outcomes or possessions, then that will also help with a healthy thyroid function. So that's the, I guess that metabolism side of things have mentioned that the thermic value of food. So what has a higher highest thermic value of food, I did mention that. So the highest thermic value of food is protein. So a lot of work goes I did I mentioned in terms of the fiber, so breaking down the fiber in order to extract the energy, that protein has a really high thermic value. Hence why it's you know, people encourage protein consumption. And when someone wants to lose weight, because you consume more protein, you got more energy going into that protein in order to extract energy. So yes, protein is a form of energy. It's not proteins, right? The protein that there's, there's just as many calories per gram of protein as what there is carbohydrates. And we get so carried away with the carbohydrate side of things. That, yes, you but the thing is the satiety, you're going to get greater satiety through eating larger amounts of protein. Hence, overall, you'll eat less if you eat larger amounts of protein versus carbohydrates. In order to get that same satiety, you need to consume more, and overall, you're going to consume more calories. So that probably explains why these high protein diets work is because you're more satisfied, and you end up eating less. But you can also eat a well balanced diet and still consume less calories through like a process of mindful eating. So really, embracing the food, embracing the food for what it is, and sitting down eating it slowly eating it with people putting down your knife and fork in between mouthfuls having a bit of conversation. So that nice slow way of eating, like you're fine. When you go to a three and a half or three course meal, what you realize is that you end up consuming less over the three courses, but you feel very satisfied. It's because you've allowed your body to communicate that, yes, you're you're full, there's like there's a 20 minute lag between when you think you're still hungry, and you keep eating out too when your body says are your fault, and then you've realised you have overeating. So you know that 20 minute lag is going to vary from person to person, but there is a lag time between that satisfaction. So the slower you ate, you'll realize that you ate less, because you get this satiety signals. Also, minimising the variety in your diet can also help eating less so that sort of more mono typing, eating, which isn't very you know, if you love if you're very into food then you like the variety but variety also drives overeating. So, if you're sort of more mono eating, eating the same foods and you know you can consider that boring but certainly it is a good way to eat less if you're looking to lose weight is eat less variety. Just be boring. You won't want to eat you know like if the aim but there's only so many carrots you could eat, for example, before they're just boring, don't want to have them anymore. So the more variety in your diet, the more you'll enjoy each of the different flavors and end up consuming more. So the less variety you have, the less you'll consume. But you want to have some variety, in a sense that you are getting proteins, carbohydrates, you're getting, you know, vegetable consumed in that process. It's not just all protein. And so it is finding that overall well balanced that being able to also balance your lifestyle in order to support that food consumption. So I've covered a lot about the intake of energy and how our body extracts the energy from the food we eat. What I haven't covered much about is the expenditure. So when we do work, okay, so work is moving, okay, it's essentially moving a distance. That's how work what that's how we generate work by me moving my arm, you know, talking to you in this podcast, I'm doing work on burning energy in that process. I'm burning energy talking, I'm burning energy through thinking, obviously, running my body. There's energy burns, and that's the basal metabolic rate. So what's the how much energy is consumed at rest, but I'm not at rest. Rest is obviously lying down, not moving. So your body's consuming energy, manufacturing, recycling, repairing, doing what it needs to do to keep you alive, but you're not moving. Okay, so your basal metabolic rate is your rate, or energy burns at rest, and that sight at nighttime when you're sleeping. That's, you know, you are expending energy at nighttime staying alive, okay, you're breathing, your heart's beating, there is some movement going on in your body, but you're not actually physically moving your body. So the physical movement of your body expends further energy, okay, and this is what we refer to as movement or exercise. And so yes, the more you move your body, the more energy you expend. Now, there's different rates of movement, the more intense the rate of movement, the higher the energy consumed, okay, the slower the movement, less energy consumed. It's really logic and basic. And I think we overcomplicate things. When we talk about weight loss, it is really simple. The less you eat, the more you move your body, the greater the energy deficit. And if you will lose weight over time. Now, sometimes people don't allow enough time for that to actually take place or for you to actually notice the effects. Yes, you're losing weight, but they become a bit distorted in terms of the way in which we measure weight loss. So, you know, we stand on some scales, okay. But we could be in the process of moving, generating or building muscle and losing body fat, but the scales don't change. And so, yes, standing on some scales isn't a great way to work out where the because most people in this process, they're happy to gain muscle, but they want to lose body fat. Now, your scales are not going to tell you what's happening in relation to body fat reduction and muscle gain are they so unless you have those, those special bioimpedance scales, and they're not accurate, but they're good from a relative point of view, the best accuracy in terms of understanding your body composition in terms of the amount of fluid, the bone density and your muscle mass, and your fat mass is a DEXA scan, D E X A scan and you can get one of those duns it's an x ray. So again, you're going to be exposed to some radiation, but it's the most accurate way to work out your body composition and where those where that fat is, in terms of you know, where is it occupying on your body DEXA scan is the best way. So this is, I think, really important is that you actually allow time, so yes, move your body more. The more intense you move your body, the greater the energy expenditure, the more you work, so the harder it is, the more energy you're expending. So high intensity interval training is hard work. You really sweat you are working hard. You're expending more energy. Yoga is a form of movement, but it's much slower. Okay, so you're not expending as much energy as someone doing high intensity interval training. Okay, so you're going to consume more calories per period of time. In a more high intense class of could be boxing it could be high intensity interval training could be sprinting. Whatever the higher the intensity, you're going to burn more calories per unit of time. So, in terms of walking in yoga, yes, you'll need to do it for longer in order to expend the same amount of energy. Okay, but some people like that they prefer that they don't want that sweaty form of exercise, they don't like it. Some people love working hard, because they feel good when they're working hard, you release more endorphins, okay. And that can be also another feel good from the exercise. But there's benefit to yoga in terms of the mindfulness that goes with it. And walking, you can do it socializing, so you can get double the benefit, you can catch up with someone as well as walk. So again, it's finding the balance that's working for you. But generally, more intense, the exercise higher energy expenditure per unit of time. Now, in terms of what you're burning, so there's this thing around, you know, am I burning fat, I want to burn fat. And so, the slower the exercise, the more you'll get into fat burning. But overall, it's calorie consumption, calorie consumption is what we're after. So you'll lose weight more rapidly, the more intense the exercise. However, if you're, you know, again, if you've got that mindset of attachment and hanging on to things, and hanging on to resentment and things like that, that can really affect your ability to lose weight, you will lose it, but it just become slower. So if you start doing it, this whole thing holistically, you'll get more, more greater or more optimal weight loss, okay? So when we're to get into fat burning, okay, so fat burning will occur at slower rates of exercise, because in order to burn fat, we need more oxygen, we can only bring in more oxygen at those slower forms of working so that the lighter the exercise, you'll get more into fat burning. However, if your overall goal is to reduce fat, then burning more calories overall is more important. So high intensity, where you burning different types of fuels, fat fuels, you're getting into glycogen stores, you'll be building, burning blood glucose, so you know, burning carbohydrates, fats together, and you'll be doing that in yoga as well. But there'll be a higher percentage towards burning the fat or working on those fat stores. Now, in terms of so that's the expenditure of mentioned the intake, what are the other implicating factors to calories and not being able to lose weight? Well, there's a lot because when I did research a few years ago, in my you know, my studies, I found that there was 108 factors that implicated overweight or obesity or weight gain. And it's because of all these social influences, like we walk down the street, we get the smells coming out of restaurants, okay. And those smells can drive satiety you know, not satiety signals, but hunger signals, okay, drives ghrelin and telling us all this food nearby, maybe, yeah, maybe I should think do I need to eat Oh, but they are feeling a bit hungry now. Because your body smelt the food, it starts producing digestive enzymes from the smell of food. And we wouldn't have had this back in the day in the prehistoric days, right? Because we weren't walking past restaurants when we were going to hunter and gatherer. And, and the foods weren't process, so there wasn't as much aromas coming from them, right? So when you see an animal in the distance, there's not much it's not the meat aroma. It's not cooking, right? But you walk past a restaurant that makes cooking and the aromas, the fats, the oils, your nose picks up and you think, well, that's smells good, but an animal in nature. It's not, you know, the only attractive thing is that I need to eat it. Because if I don't catch that prey, then I could potentially not survive because I'm, I need food to keep living. And so this is the whole thing about the availability of food is really implicating us in terms of consuming excessive calories. And that's what we're doing. We're consuming excessive calories, and we're not expending as much as we used to we've got more sedentary jobs. So we've got to make more effort to move our bodies, okay, so find ways in which you can make more effort to move your body so question, Do I really need to drive can I walk there? I always do that. I ended up finding that I'm walking further today than ever before because I think it's actually Not that far. When I think about it, what can I do to maximize that time, I'll do it with someone, I'll walk with someone, I'll walk with my children walk with my wife, I'll say I'll do some socializing or some connecting whilst I'm walking. Or if I can't do that, or listen to a book, I get a book read to me whilst I'm doing that walk. So I'm educating myself. I'm, yeah, I guess enlightening my knowledge. And help in able to articulate this message to you through reading more books or not reading but listening to more books in that walk, or you can listen to a podcast and educate you might be listening to this podcast whilst you're walking so good on you, okay, you're increasing your health knowledge as well as walking. So keep doing that. Keep doing that it's thoroughly recommended. When there's a choice between escalators and stairs, go the stairs, elevators and stairs, go the stairs of a tiny level two, level three, level four, that's fine level 30. Yeah, I can understand why you might want to go. The lift, okay, might not have an hour to get up 30 levels or whatever it takes to get up 30 levels. But one or two levels or three levels or even four levels, Take a walk, once upon a time for level buildings didn't have didn't have lifts. Today, a lot of these four storey buildings do back in the day, they didn't say three and four storey buildings, we walked you always walked, you might be living in one of those buildings at the moment without a lift, and you're getting more energy by walking upstairs. So look for those into incidental ways in which you can increase movement. Okay. In terms of reducing energy intake, I was mentioning walking down the street, I suggest to take paths that don't walk past food shops. So you might want to think about your path. So I when I'm walking down to the beach, from my house, there's a path via lots of food and cafes, I choose not to go down that street or choose to go down the street that doesn't have food and cafes. Okay, so I'm not tempted by the smells, I'm not thinking about food, because I'm just in nature. So again, think about where you're going the path you're taking. If there's a favorite takeaway place that has delicious burgers, then maybe find different paths around that and try different things. And again, it is a bit of making a bit of effort to avoid these temptations. They are temptations, we're constantly tempted when we're watching ads, so avoid watching ads, ads are full of food beverages, okay. So avoid watching ads, you can shop online today, at least shopping online, you're not walking past more and more food outlets and thinking about you need to eat whilst you're shopping or something like that. So there's lots of different ways in which we can minimize these destructive forces that tempt us into eating. And yes, I get tempted into eating too, if they're around me, minimising the snacky foods around the house can be helpful have a whole foods, so therefore you've got to work in order to get some something out of that food, you've actually got to do some work. So yes, cooking requires energy expenditure. Cleaning the house requires energy expenditure, doing yard work requires energy expenditure. So some of these things we've delegated, because we don't like doing but if you're looking to lose weight, maybe take it back for a period of time to increase your energy expenditure. Okay, so these are just all little tips. And it's really simple. As I said, at the start of this episode, energy in equals energy out plus accumulation. If you're not getting as much out, as you're taking in, then that leads to accumulation. So what we want to do is reduce what goes in. And there's different ways of doing that I've shared some ways to reduce the temptations. Also, cutting out meals can affect metabolic rate, okay, because initially, but over time, your body will get used to it. So initially, you may find that cutting out a meal hasn't made no difference, but you need to wait time longer periods of time, even up to a month or six weeks to things to start to your body thinks it's normal not to have that extra meal. So again, give yourself time, reduce energy intake, by mindful eating and some of the other things I shared today and increase energy expenditure through activity. So that's it for today. I hope it was helpful in terms of calories 101 Understanding energy intake, energy expenditure. I hope you enjoyed it, please share it with others that could also benefit from the education and really appreciate you sharing the podcast. Leave a review so that it extends this reach to more people I really want to help enhance and enlighten the well being of more people and also go to the link and join the me&my health up club or even inquire about theme&my health up club by emailing me or going to the link in the show notes. me&my health up club is a club of like minded people where I share exclusive information. We also come together socially in our local areas. And I also give additional benefits through being a me&my health up club members, such as discounts to healthy food, produce healthy products, supplements, and there's lots of knowledge that I share that I don't share on public forums that's only exclusive to the club members and you also get to meet like minded people. So check out the link and join the me and me&my health up club. Thank you.Podcast Disclaimer:
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