Garner's Greek Mythology

EP 39: Dionysus, The Bacchae & The Fate Of Thebes

February 13, 2022 Patrick Garner Season 3 Episode 39
Garner's Greek Mythology
EP 39: Dionysus, The Bacchae & The Fate Of Thebes
Show Notes Transcript

Welcome to Episode 39. In this episode we enter the city of Thebes with the god Dionysus, who returns to his mother’s home seeking revenge. There he converts the city’s women and girls to Bacchae, or followers of Bacchus, another name for Dionysus.

He is arrested by the young King Pentheus and events goes downhill from there …

Narrated by mythologist and best-selling author, Patrick Garner, Garner's Greek Mythology is unlike any other Greek history series.  Here these divine beings are viewed as if they were anything but mythical...

If you love this podcast, you'll also enjoy Garner's audible novel about the gods, Homo Divinitas, now available on Amazon.com and Audible.com.

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EPISODE 39DIONYSUS, THE BACCHAE & THE FATE OF THEBES

IMAGINE A LOVELY MOUNTAINSIDE ON A LATE SPRING AFTERNOON. YOU ARE A TRAVELER, WALKING A NARROW DIRT ROAD FROM ONE TOWN TO ANOTHER.

YOU HEAR SINGING & MUSIC & STOP TO LISTEN: WOMEN'S VOICES, GIGGLING, FLUTES, LAUGHTER. YOUR CURIOSITY RAISED, YOU STEP INTO THE WOODS TO GET  A VIEW.

TO YOUR AMAZEMENT, 20 PACES INTO THE BRUSH YOU SEE DOZENS OF GIRLS & WOMEN. SOME ARE SLEEPING, SOME ARE SINGING & DRINKING WINE, OTHERS ARE TEARING RAW FLESH FROM ANIMAL BONES.

YOU REALIZE THAT YOU'VE ENCOUNTERED THE INFAMOUS MAENADS OR BACCHAE. THEY WERE GREEK FEMALES IN A STATE OF ECSTATIC FRENZY, GIRLS WHO FOLLOWED THE WINE-GOD DIONYSUS. .

DIONYSUS IS ALSO REFERRED TO AS BACCHUS. UNDER HIS INFLUENCE THEY BECAME WILD, FREE WOMEN UNDER THE STARS. 

IN THIS EPISODE WE FOLLOW WHAT HAPPENS WHEN DIONYSUS VISITS THE GREEK CITY OF THEBES. IT'S AN ANCESTRAL HOME OF SORTS FOR HIM. 

THERE HE CONVERTS ALL THE GIRLS & WOMEN TO BACCHAE, WHO ABANDON THE CITY FOR DAYS ON END. SUDDENLY, THERE ARE NO FEMALES OVER THE AGE OF 10 LEFT IN THEBES. 

WHAT ABOUT THEIR FATHERS AND HUSBANDS? THEY WERE AFRAID TO CONFRONT THEM IN THIS STATE. NOT EVEN THE KING OF THEBES KNEW WHAT TO DO.

THIS IS EPISODE 39 OF GARNER'S GREEK MYTHOLOGY. WE HAVE LISTENERS FROM 155 COUNTRIES ... SO WELCOME TO EVERYONE, WHEREVER YOU ARE.

I'M YOUR HOST, MYTHOLOGIST & BEST-SELLING AUTHOR, PATRICK GARNER. 

THESE STORIES ABOUT THE GODS HAVE BEEN TOLD FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS. BUT NOW THERE ARE NEW STORIES THAT ARE AS COMPELLING.

IF YOU HAVEN'T ALREADY DONE SO, CHECK OUT MY BOOKS ABOUT THE GODS IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD. THEY'RE PART OF THE WINNOWING TRILOGY.

YOU CAN READ ABOUT THEM & ABOUT THIS PODCAST AT PATRICKGARNERBOOKS.COM. 

AND AS ALWAYS, THIS PODCAST FOCUSES ON ONE THING ... GREEK GODS, OF COURSE. THEY, LIKE YOU, ARE HERE, NOW ...

DIONYSUS APPEARS REPEATEDLY IN THESE EPISODES, & FOR GOOD REASON. HE REPRESENTS ONE EXTREME OF DIVINITY, WHILE THE OTHER IS APOLLO.

DIONYSUS IS THE GOD OF WINE, REVELRY, DANCE, THEATRE & PASSION. APOLLO ON THE OTHER HAND WAS OFTEN CALLED THE SUN GOD & WAS ACCLAIMED AS THE GOD OF REASON.

BOTH WERE SONS OF ZEUS, BUT DIONYSUS' BIRTH WAS BY FAR MORE DRAMATIC.

HIS MOTHER WAS SEMELE, WHO LIVED IN THEBES. SHE WAS LIKELY A PRIESTESS IN ZEUS' TEMPLE.

WHILE CELEBRATING HIS RITES, SHE WAS SEEN BY ZEUS, WHO WAS SMITTEN WITH HER. HE WOULD FLY DOWN FROM OLYMPUS IN THE FORM OF AN EAGLE AND TRANSFORM HIMSELF INTO A HANDSOME MAN.

HIS WIFE, THE ALWAYS-JEALOUS HERA, DISCOVERED THE AFFAIR ONLY AFTER SEMELE BECAME PREGNANT.

HERA DISGUISED HERSELF AS AN OLD CRONE & BEFRIENDED SEMELE. WHEN HERA ASKED SEMELE WHO HER LOVER WAS, THE GIRL WHSIPERED THAT IT WAS ZEUS.

HERA WAS FURIOUS, AND FIGURED OUT HOW TO GET REVENGE. SHE PERSUADED SEMELE THAT ZEUS, AS AN OLYMPIC GOD, WAS FAR MORE MAGNIFICENT THAN SHE BELIEVED.

“TELL HIM," HERA SAID, "THAT YOU WANT HIM TO REVEAL HIMSELF IN ALL HIS GLORY."

SEMELE AGREED.

WHEN ZEUS HEARD THE REQUEST, HE KNEW WHAT WOULD HAPPEN. NO MORTAL COULD SEE HIM WITHOUT BEING INSTANTLY INCINERATED

HE PLEADED WITH SEMELE TO RETRACT HER WISH, BUT SHE WOULD NOT. BY NOW SHE WAS FAR INTO HER PREGNANCY WITH DIONYSUS.

IN DESPAIR, BUT BOUND BY HIS OATH, ZEUS REVEALED HIMSELF AS ... THE GOD OF THUNDER & LIGHTNING, AS THE GOD OF THUNDERBOLTS!

SEMELE WAS IMMEDIATELY CONSUMED IN FLAMES. AT THE SAME MOMENT, ZEUS SAVED THE BABY DIONYSUS, BY SEWING HIM INTO HIS THIGH.

MONTHS LATER DIONYSUS WAS BORN IN SECRET. ZEUS TRIED TO HIDE THE FACT FROM HERA, BUT SHE FOUND OUT.

HERA'S JEALOUSY WAS ENDLESS & SHE DROVE THE CHILD FROM MT. OLYMPUS. AT FIRST DIONYSUS WAS CARED FOR BY MOUNTAIN NYMPHS.

THEN ZEUS ENTRUSTED HIS CARE TO SEMELE'S SISTER ... TO DISGUISE HIM FROM HERA THE BOY WAS DRESSED AS A GIRL, WEARING GOWNS & RIBBONS.

BUT, ONCE AGAIN, HERA DISCOVERED HIS WHEREABOUTS & HE WAS FORCED TO FLEE. HE WENT FROM TOWN TO TOWN, COUNTRY TO COUNTRY.

HIS TRAVELS INCLUDED THE CYCLADIC ISLANDS NEAR CRETE, WHEN, AS A YOUNG MAN, HE FELL IN LOVE WITH ARIADNE, THE KING'S DAUGHTER. 

THEY WERE HAPPILY MARRIED UNTIL SHE WAS KILLED BY THE GODDESS ARTEMIS TO AVENGE AN OLD PROMISE.

DIONYSUS WAS DEVASTATED. FOR YEARS AFTERWARD HE ROAMED THROUGHOUT EGYPT AND AS FAR AWAY AS INDIA. 

HE EVENTUALLY RETURNED TO GREECE, FINALLY WISE TO THE DEALINGS OF THE WORLD AND THE GODS, 

ONE OF HIS FIRST STOPS IN GREECE WAS THE CITY OF THEBES, WHICH IS WHERE HIS MOTHER HAD LIVED. 

HE LEARNED THAT HER RELATIVES HAD MOCKED THE CLAIMS THAT HER LOVER WAS ZEUS.

SEEKING REVENGE FOR THIS DISRESPECT—AND NO DOUBT FOR ALL THE PAIN THAT HE HAD ENDURED IN LIFE—DIONYSUS DECIDED TO PROVE HIS DIVINITY. 

HE PRESENTED HIMSELF AS A TRAVELER, A STRANGER ... AND ALMOST IMMEDIATELY HE CHARMED EVERY GIRL & WOMAN IN THE CITY.

HE CALLED THEM HIS BACCHAE, WHICH MEANT PRIESTESSES OF BACCHUS. HE INITIATED THEM IN HIS SECRET RITES.

UNDER HIS SPELL, THEY FOLLOWED HIM TO A NEARBY MOUNTAIN & PARTICIPATED IN SONGS, DANCES & ORGIES. THEIR PHYSICAL STRENGTH WAS AMAZING.

LATE IN THE EVENINGS AS THEY SANG & DRANK WINE, THEY ATTACKED WILD ANIMALS & PULLED OUT TREES BY THEIR ROOTS.

DIONYSUS HAD MADE THEM FORGET ABOUT THEIR FAMILIES. EVEN NURSING MOTHERS PARTICIPATED, LEAVING THEIR BABIES AND INSTEAD SUCKLING FAWNS & FOXES THAT THEY THOUGHT WERE THEIR CHILDREN. 

THEY LIVED IN A FRENZY OF MADNESS.

THE KING OF THEBES WAS HIMSELF A YOUNG MAN WHOSE NAME WAS PENTHEUS. HE QUICKLY CONCLUDED THAT THE STRANGER WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CHAOS.

HE SENT HIS SOLDIERS OUT TO FIND HIM. THE GOD ALLOWED HIMSELF TO BE ARRESTED.

PENTHEUS CONFRONTED DIONYSUS, ASKING WHO HE WAS. THE GOD ANSWERED SIMPLY, "I AM A STRANGER."

THE KING MOCKED HIM, SAYING, "FROM YOUR LONG HAIR, YOU'RE NO WRESTLER. AND THE WAY YOU'RE DRESSED IS QUITE WOMANLY."

DIONYSUS SAID NOTHING. THE KING CONTINUED, SAYING, "YOU APPEAR TO HAVE BROUGHT ODD RITES TO OUR CITY. FROM WHERE DO THEY ARISE?"

DIONYSUS REPLIED, "FROM DIONYSUS HIMSELF, THE SON OF ZEUS."

THE KING CONTINUED, "DID THIS 'DIONYSUS' FORCE YOU INTO HIS SERVICE?" 

THE STRANGER SAID, "WE MET FACE TO FACE. HE FREELY GAVE ME HIS RITES."

PENTHEUS PROBED FURTHER, ASKING, "AND THESE RITES ... WHAT FORM DO THEY TAKE?" 

DIONYSUS REPLIED, "ONLY THE BACCHAE ARE ALLOWED TO KNOW."

“AH," THE KING SAID. "YOU MAKE ME MORE CURIOUS THAN EVER. ALL OF YOUR ANSWERS ARE EMPTY-WORDED EVASIONS.”

THE STRANGER REPLIED, "TO THE IGNORANT MAN, ANY SPEAKER OF WISDOM WILL SEEM FOOLISH."

PENTHEUS IGNORED HIS INSULT & WENT ON, "DO YOU CELEBRATE THESE RITES IN THE DAY OR NIGHT?"

THE STRANGER SAID, "MOSTLY AT NIGHT SINCE DARKNESS INDUCES DEVOTION."

THE KING SAID ANGRILY, "NO! DARKNESS IS DEVIOUS & CORRUPTS WOMEN!"

THE STRANGER REPLIED, "REALLY? EVEN IN THE DAYTIME SOMEONE COULD DEVISE SHAMEFUL ACTS."

PENTHEUS RESPONDED, "YOU'LL PAY A PENALTY FOR TWISTING WORDS LIKE THIS!"

THE STRANGER SAID QUICKLY, "AND YOU, KING, WILL PAY FOR YOUR IGNORANCE & IMPIETY TOWARD THE GOD."

THE KING REPLIED, "WHAT A GYMNAST WITH WORDS YOU ARE. YOU’LL BE THE ONE TO PAY!”

THE STRANGER LAUGHED, SAYING, "WHAT TERRIBLE DEED WILL YOU INFLICT ON ME?"

"FIRST," THE KING SAID, "I'LL CUT OFF THOSE LUXURIOUS CURLS OF YOURS. QUITE EMBARRASSING, I THINK."

"IMPOSSIBLE," THE STRANGER SAID. "THEY ARE SACRED TO THE GOD."

"AND WE'LL LOCK YOU UP IN PRISON," THE KING SAID. 

"DO AS YOU WANT," THE STRANGER SAID. "THE GOD HIMSELF WILL SET ME FREE WHENEVER I WISH."

'YOU MEAN FROM YOUR JAIL CELL?" PENTHEUS SAID, MOCKING HIM. 

THE STRANGER SAID, "EVEN NOW THE GOD IS NEARBY & WATCHING YOUR EVERY MOVE."

"WHERE?" THE KING DEMANDED. "I LOOK AROUND & SEE NO 'GOD'!"

"THE GOD," THE STRANGER SAID, "IS RIGHT BESIDE ME. BUT BECAUSE YOU'RE SO IMPIOUS, YOU CAN'T SEE HIM."

"GUARDS!" THE KING CRIED OUT. "SEIZE THIS MAN. HE INSULTS ME & ALL OF THEBES!"

THE STRANGER SAID WITH GREAT AUTHORITY, "I ORDER THEM NOT TO BIND ME."

"AND I ORDER THEM TO BIND YOU NOW. I AM THE KING. AND I HAVE MORE POWER THAN YOU!"

 THE STRANGER SHOOK HIS HEAD & SAID, "YOU DON'T KNOW WHAT YOU'RE DOING OR HOW BADLY THIS WILL TURN OUT."

DIONYSUS WAS GRABBED BY THE GUARDS. THE KING SHOUTED, "PLACE HIM IN PITCH DARKNESS!"

THEN PENTHEUS CONTINUED HIS RANT, YELLING, "DO YOUR DANCING THERE!" AND, "AS FOR THOSE WOMEN YOU'VE SOMEHOW CONVERTED, I'LL SELL THEM AS SLAVES!"

DIONYSUS SAID WITHOUT CONCERN, "I CANNOT SUFFER WHAT I AM NOT FATED TO SUFFER ...

"BUT KNOW THAT AS PUNISHMENT FOR THESE INSULTS, DIONYSUS WILL PURSUE YOU — THE VERY GOD YOU CLAIM DOESN'T EXIST ...

"AND WHEN YOU WRONG ME, IT IS HIM YOU THROW INTO CHAINS!"

THE STRANGER WAS LOCKED IN THE KING'S STABLES. HE LAUGHED AT THE KING'S FOLLY. "YOU'LL REGRET THIS, PENTHEUS!” HE SAID.

WITHIN MINUTES THEBES WAS ROCKED BY AN EARTHQUAKE THAT DESTROYED THE STABLES & LEFT THE PALACE TREMBLING. 

THE STRANGER WALKED OUT OF HIS CELL, BRUSHING DUST FROM HIS CLOTHES.

THOSE WHO SAW HIM CRIED OUT, "HOW DID YOU ESCAPE?" AND DIONYSUS SAID, "OH, I SAVED MYSELF EASILY ENOUGH ...

AT THAT MOMENT THE KING STUMBLED FROM THE PALACE, SHOCKED TO SEE THE STRANGER.

PENTHEUS IMMEDIATELY THREATENED DIONYSUS AGAIN, & AGAIN DIONYSUS WARNED HIM, SAYING, "ANY THREAT AGAINST ME IS A THREAT AGAINST THE GOD HIMSELF."

THE YOUNG PENTHEUS PAUSED, SAYING, ”AH, BUT AS MUCH AS I RAIL AGAINST YOU, I WOULD LOVE TO SEE THESE DANCING GIRLS FOR MYSELF. IT MUST BE QUITE THE SCENE,"

THE STRANGER SAID QUIETLY, "I CAN ARRANGE THAT."

PENTHEUS EXCLAIMED, "WE'D HAVE TO DO SO SECRETLY. I COULDN'T BE SEEN SNEAKING AROUND IN THE WOODS."

THE STRANGER HANDED THE KING A LONG DRESS, & SAID, "YOU CAN GO IN DISGUISE. YOU'LL MAKE A LOVELY GIRL ..." THE KING FELL BACK IN SHOCK.

THE STRANGER SAID, "THE BACCHAE WOULD KILL YOU IF THEY SAW YOU AS YOURSELF. NO MAN LIVES WHO SEES THEM DANCE."

PENTHEUS SAID, "I DON'T KNOW HOW TO WEAR A WOMAN'S GOWN."

THE STRANGER SAID, "DON'T WORRY. I'LL HELP YOU DRESS."

PENTHEUS & THE STRANGER WENT INTO THE PALACE WHERE PENTHEUS CHANGED INTO THE DRESS. THE STRANGER HELPED HIM WITH HIS HAIR & RUBBED SOME BLUSH ONTO HIS CHEEKS.

AS THEY EXITED THE PALACE, THE STRANGER SAID, "YOU LOOK LIKE A LOVELY YOUNG GIRL, ONE OF MY WILD BACCHAE —"

THEN HE LED THE KING DOWN A SIDE ROAD, SAYING, "WE'LL GO DOWN THIS DESERTED ROAD. YOU WON'T BE SEEN.”

TOGETHER THEY WALKED OUT OF THEBES & UP A NARROW TRAIL THAT LED INTO THE MOUNTAINS WHERE THE BACCHAE DANCED.

THE KING WAS UNAWARE THAT HE WAS WALKING TO HIS DEATH. AND ALSO UNAWARE THAT HIS MOTHER WAS IN THE MOUNTAINS AMONG THE FRENZIED WOMEN.

AS THEY WALKED DEEPER INTO THE WOODS, BOTH COULD HEAR SINGING. THE KING STOPPED, ASKING, "DO WE HEAR THEM NOW?"

"YES," THE STRANGER REPLIED, "YOU HEAR THOSE WHO WILL SHOW YOU A THING OR TWO."

"THIS IS INDEED EXCITING,” PENTHEUS SAID. "LET'S FIND A GOOD PLACE TO SPY ON THEM. I'M SURE THEY'RE EMBARRASSING THEMSELVES."

THE STRANGER SAID, "IF WE DO, IT MAY BE ONE OF THE LAST THINGS YOU SEE."

THE KING LAUGHED, "YES, BEFORE I HAVE THEM ALL ARRESTED!"

"OVER HERE, THEN," THE STRANGER SAID. BUT WHEN THE KING TRIED TO SEE, HE FOUND IT DIFFICULT, SAYING BUSHES WERE IN THE WAY.

THE STRANGER BOOSTED HIM INTO A TREE, SAYING, "YOU'LL HAVE NO DIFFICULTY SEEING THE WORST OF THINGS FROM HERE."

AS PREDICTED, PENTHEUS COULD LOOK DOWN & SEE HUNDREDS OF FRENZIED BACCHAE. BUT THE WOMEN COULD LOOK UP & SEE HIM—WHICH THEY DID.

OUTRAGED THAT SOMEONE WAS SPYING ON THEM, THEY SHOOK THE TREE. WHEN THE KING CLUNG TO THE BRANCHES, THE BACCHAE TOOK THE TREE BY ITS ROOTS & PULLED IT DOWN, CAPTURING HIM.

THEY STARTED TO YANK AT HIS ARMS. ONE OF THE BOLDEST OF THE WOMEN WAS HIS MOTHER, WHO CRIED OUT, "I HAVE THE BEAST!"

PENTHEUS SCREAMED, "NO, MOTHER! I'M YOUR SON!"

BUT ALL THE WOMEN SAW WAS A WILD BEAST. NO ONE, NOT EVEN HIS MOTHER, HEARD A MAN PLEAD FOR HIS LIFE … 

ONE BACCHAE TOOK HIS LEG, ANOTHER HIS ARM, YET ANOTHER HIS HEAD. AS HE BEGGED FOR MERCY, THEY TORE HIM INTO PIECES.

WHEN IT WAS DONE, THE BACCHAE DANCED, SINGING, 

LET US LIFT UP OUR FEET & DANCE,

LET US LIFT UP OUR VOICES TO THE GOD!

WE ARE VICTORS IN THE HUNT,

CONQUERORS OF WILD THINGS ON THE PROWL!

THE STRANGER, NOW OPENLY FLAUNTING HIMSELF AS THE GOD DIONYSUS, LED THEM DANCING BACK TO THEBES. 

ALL WERE STILL IN A WILD FRENZY, JOYOUS IN THEIR VICTORY. 

PENTHEUS’S MOTHER MOUNTED PENTHEUS' HEAD ON A POLE, CONVINCED IT WAS THE HEAD OF A FEARSOME BEAST. 

AS SHE ENTERED THE CITY, SHE CRIED OUT TO THOSE WATCHING, "LOOK AT OUR BRAVERY! I CARRY THE HEAD OF THE LION WE KILLED!"

ALL OF THOSE WHO ONCE ADMIRED HER, TURNED AWAY IN TEARS, AFRAID OF SPEAKING THE TRUTH ABOUT WHAT THEY SAW.

THE GREEK PLAYWRIGHT EURIPIDES USED THIS STORY FOR A TRAGIC PLAY PERFORMED IN ATHENS IN 405 B.C., ABOUT 2400 YEARS AGO.

MANY CRITICS CONSIDER THE PLAY THE GREATEST OF ALL GREEK TRAGEDIES, & SCHOLARS TODAY OFTEN REFER TO IT AS THE GREATEST PLAY EVER WRITTEN.

BUT CRITICS ALSO WONDER ABOUT DIONYSUS' DARK CRUELTY. CADMUS, ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THEBES, SAYS CRITICALLY IN THE PLAY, "GODS OUGHT NOT TO BE LIKE MORTALS IN THEIR PASSIONS."

OF COURSE HE IMPLIES THAT DIONYSUS SHOULD BE ABOVE PETTY REVENGE. BUT PERHAPS WE EXPECT TOO MUCH FROM THIS DIVINITY.

THINK ABOUT HIS CHILDHOOD: HIS MOTHER, SEMELE, WAS DESTROYED BY HER LOVER, ZEUS, WHO SEWED HER BABY INTO HIS THIGH.

UPON THE CHILD'S BIRTH, DIONYSUS WAS HOUNDED INCESSANTLY BY HERA ... AFTER HE WAS DRIVEN FROM OLYMPUS, DIONYSUS FLED FROM PLACE TO PLACE.

HE WAS DRESSED IN GIRL'S CLOTHES TO DISGUISE HIM, HE HEARD HIS RELATIVES DISPARAGE HIS MOTHER, DISMISSING HIS DIVINITY.

HIS YOUNG WIFE—THE LOVE OF HIS LIFE— WAS KILLED BY A GODDESS. 

LIFE FOR DIONYSUS BEFORE HE ARRIVED IN THEBES WAS THE LIFE OF A STRANGER WITHOUT A HOME, A GOD WITHOUT RECOGNITION.

DIONYSUS APPEARED IN THEBES TO DEMAND ACCEPTANCE & ACCLAMATION. WHEN KING PENTHEUS, LIKE SO MANY BEFORE HIM, MOCKED THE STRANGER, DIONYSUS DECIDED THAT REVENGE WAS APPROPRIATE.

THE PLAY ITSELF ENDS WITH DIONYSUS APPEARING SUDDENLY ON THE ROOF OF THE PALACE.

HE CRIES OUT TO THE PEOPLE OF THEBES, "LET THOSE WHO HAVE SEEN ME KNOW THAT ZEUS IS THE ONE WHO SOWED THE GOD DIONYSUS ...

"NOW YOU KNOW CLEARLY THAT HE IS A GOD ... THE KING OF THIS CITY TRIED TO CHAIN & ABUSE ME. 

"THEN HE DARED TO GO TO THE MOUNTAIN & SPY ON THE BACCHAE DANCING THERE!

"HE DIED AT THEIR HANDS & HE SUFFERED HIS DEATH JUSTLY ... I SAY THESE THINGS AS DIONYSUS, WHOSE FATHER IS ZEUS!

"IF THEBES HAD CHOSEN WISELY YOU WOULD NOW BE HAPPY & HAVE THE SON OF ZEUS AS AN ALLY ... BUT YOU DID NOT CHOOSE WELL ...

"WHEN YOU OUGHT TO HAVE KNOWN US, YOU TURNED YOUR BACK ON A GOD."

… JOIN ME ... FOR THE NEXT EPISODE OF GARNER'S GREEK MYTHOLOGY. 

IF YOU LIKE WHAT YOU HEAR, BE SURE TO VISIT Patrick-Garner-Books-dot-com. IT'S ALL ABOUT YOUR FAVORITE GREEK GODS ... A DISCUSSION OF THIS PODCAST ... & MORE ON MY NOVELS.

IF YOU'D PREFER TO LISTEN—AFTER ALL, YOU ARE LISTENING TO A PODCAST—YOU CAN GET MY AUDIBLE BOOK, HOMO DIVINITAS,AT AMAZON OR AUDIBLE.

THANKS FOR LISTENING ... THIS IS YOUR HOST, PATRICK GARNER.