Arkansas Row Crops Radio

Weeds AR Wild Series, S2 Ep13. Sedge Control

May 11, 2022 University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture
Arkansas Row Crops Radio
Weeds AR Wild Series, S2 Ep13. Sedge Control
Show Notes Transcript

Weeds AR Wild Series, S2 Ep13. In this episode, Dr. Jason Bond, Extension Weed Scientist with Mississippi State University, joins Dr. Tommy Butts to discuss the prevalence of sedges this year and our control options across crops.

Weeds AR Wild Series, Season 2 Episode 13. 
Title: Weeds AR Wild Series, S2 Ep13. Sedge Control
Date:  May 11, 2022

[Music]:  Arkansas Row Crops Radio providing up to date information and timely recommendations on row crop production in Arkansas.

Tommy: Welcome to the Weeds AR Wild podcast series as a part of Arkansas Row Crops Radio. My name is Tommy Butts, Extension Weed Scientist for the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture. And today, I get to be joined by Dr. Jason Bond from Mississippi State University. He's an Extension Weed Scientist just across the river there in Stoneville. Jason, you want to say hi or give a little intro or shout out to our wonderful audience out there?

Jason: I appreciate it, Tommy. It's nice to be on the podcast with you. So, I'm Jason Bond. I'm an Extension Weed Scientist, as Tommy said. I work at the Delta Research Extension Center in Stoneville. For those of you who don't know where Stoneville is, we're about ten miles east of Greenville, Mississippi, which is right on Highway 82 close to the Mississippi River. As the crow flies, I'm probably 10 or 12 miles from the main channel of the river.

Tommy: Awesome. Well, thank you for joining us today. I'm happy to have you on. And the topic today and we're going to try and hit on is basically sedge control this year and just the calls that we've been getting. There’s a whole mess of different sedges we're dealing with, especially in our rice acres. But this year, more than ever, it seems to be popping up across all our cropping systems. So, Jason, I know you mentioned before when we were talking that you've had a lot of calls across to everything. I just figured I'd turn it over to you, quick, just to hit on a little bit some of the calls you've been seeing, what crops, just what's kind of popping up out there on your end over there in Mississippi.

Jason: So, the sedge calls and texts that I get, I guess, make the assumption that it's yellow nudsedge. We definitely have some purple nutsedge, but as a rule it's going to be yellow nutsedge. And with the weather that we had from February until just a couple, two or three weeks ago, a very conducive environment for sedge to really go wild. We had that dry period right in the middle of February, I think like the week after Valentine's Day. And then we probably had rain, Tommy, on Stoneville latitude at least every five or seven days for seven or eight weeks in a row.

Tommy: Yeah, we were the same way in Arkansas. It just never seemed to – you’d get a couple of days, think you could dry out then all of a sudden it’d rain again and you were just all starting all over again.

Jason: Yeah. A lot of work in spurts burned down that was beautiful, starting out – just really fizzled there at the end. So with all that rain, just was a really good environment for sedge. And then we didn't get a lot of POST treatments out on those early corn acres too. So that allowed some of that to come on up. Where you had an acre that might have got a POST treatment earlier, and then it stayed wet, wasn't able to get across it to get a treatment on. And then the sedge showed up that you probably would have controlled with that general post-emergence corn treatment. So calls on corn, pre-plant calls on soybeans. You have those big ugly patches that you get in bean fields and cotton fields too. Less so on rice, so far. But our rice acres are low even for us. But those will come too. So it's been mainly, I guess, corn and soybeans and then cotton to a lesser degree.

Tommy: Yeah. And like you're saying too, so far my calls have been mainly the yellow nutsedge that’s up. Some guys are trying to prepare for the annual flatsedges in rice. And we'll hit on those a little bit later. But yeah, as of right now, it's been that yellow nutsedge. And really, I attribute that to just like you said, the year. Yellow nutsedge is a really wet condition weed, but it also likes cool conditions and relatively speaking, we've been cool, up until this week when we finally started hitting 90s and stuff. And yellow likes that cool temperature and starts to germinate and really good at like soil temps of 45 degrees. So it's just been an ideal situation for that thing to be taken off, whereas our annual flatsedges are normally kind of a later season higher soil temperature type weed. So I'm right there with you. That's what we've been battling too. As far as control measures, what have been some of your best recommendations for especially the different crops you mentioned? And we can get into rice after that. But the calls you've been getting, what are your recommendations to try and take care of that yellow nutsedge?

Jason: Well in corn, we have the luxury of being able to use Permit, which is for us up to this point been a reliable treatment. We don't have any ALS resistant yellow nutsedge in Mississippi that we know of. So that's a really good option for us on the corn acres. In the other row crops, you know, soybeans and cotton. It’s just Roundup, and Roundup, and more Roundup – and a higher rate of Roundup. Which has never been an issue until 2022 and then price being what it is, you can get a little pushback when you tell somebody, “well you know, three pints of Roundup will beat it down pretty good,” [laughter] and that comes along with sticker shock this year. But, really there's nothing better in a field that will be soybeans or a field that will be cotton other than a high rate of Roundup. We have some options in soybeans if it's a STS or BOLT bean but those are really limited. We don't know what percent of our acres would be planted to those soybean varieties, but it's not very many.

Tommy: Yeah, it's the same for us in Arkansas - it’s pretty limited as far as the STS and BOLT goes, and I'm right there with you. The Permit in corn is a great option. It helps us out a lot. When it comes to beans from a POST perspective, again, I'm there with you too. Roundup and a lot of it is a really good option. But this year it's so expensive. Like you said, you get a lot of cuss words, let's say, thrown at you because of that. And the other thing that we've seen work really good on our end is, you can do a tank mix for a lot of our crops anymore with Roundup plus Liberty. Especially if it's small, adding the Liberty has helped a lot but again, we're right back in the circle there. Well, that's a crazy, expensive treatment this year with the high price of the glufosinate side of things, too.

Jason: If you can even find it.

Tommy: If you can find it, that's a good point as well. So I mean, there's options, but especially this year, they're really not good options when it comes to kind of the soybean cotton front. I'm right there with you. Have you had any luck on the cotton front with Envoke? Or are there restrictions because of some of the plant-back restrictions and things? Are there guys that tend to avoid that? What's the Envoke side look like for you?

Jason: Envoke. Well, I think people would mostly be satisfied with Envoke just because it's the only thing that gives you any control in cotton, with the exception of those nonselective treatments that we talked about with the Roundup and Liberty. But by the time your cotton crop gets big enough to stand an application of Envoke, that fifth true leaf stage, a lot of damage has been done by this point. So I don't know that really the juice is worth the squeeze there. And I really don't know how many ounces of Envoke that we've sprayed in cotton in Mississippi in recent years, let alone Envoke that targeted to yellow nutsedge. It's just been very little, if any.

Tommy: Yeah. And I'm glad you brought up that leaf limitation, because I've been asked that a couple of times and I've tried to stress that point, but I'm glad to hear someone else bring that up – of the injury potential if you try and spray it earlier than that five-leaf.

Jason: And it's a hot treatment. I mean, you're going to know it regardless. Even if you spray it on 6 or 7leaf cotton, you're going to know that you sprayed something on there, particularly in recent years where we're almost averse to injuring cotton even with Dual. So we don't like to do that. So, you’ll definitely see that if you spray Envoke. Another point of confusion that I'll clear it up, not a lot, but just a couple guys. Envokes and ALS herbicide, Staples and ALS herbicide. I have you know talk to folks that question whether Staple was good on sedge too, and it's not. They're a different family. Same mode of action, different family, but they have different targets too. They have some targets in common but then the others are different. So I would not rely on Staple at all thinking about yellow nutsedge.

Tommy: Yeah. No, I appreciate that. That's a good distinction too. Actually kind of speaking of that too, as far as warnings go – I did want to mention we had talked about using Permit in corn. And you know, if we have STS or BOLT soybeans, you can use Permit there too for yellow nutsedge control. The one warning I did want to throw out there is that, in both Arkansas and Mississippi, if we happen to be rotating with rice then just beware of spraying that Permit every single year because that's a great way for us to build resistance and then we got nothing for that yellow nutsedge moving forward. So I just want to throw that out there. That if you’ve got a bad yellow nutsedge problem, be careful with our rotations and spraying Permit every year because that could be a little bit dangerous on that end too. As far as too, I wanted to mention some residual options – if we do get stuff burned down, but we know we're in a bad field where we're just going to have yellow nutsedge that that keeps on coming at us. You know, in soybeans, Dual Magnum continues to always be my best thing when it comes to a residual for knocking back yellow nutsedge. I will say several other herbicides that incorporate like the ALSs like we talked about, or have multiple modes of action with some PPOs and things like that, generally are pretty good as well. So, I'm looking at stuff like Canopy, Trivence, Fierce XLT that has the ALS in it. The new Tendovo from Syngenta  - all of those have shown to be pretty good as far as yellow nutsedge control too. But when it comes back down to price, I mean, you can't ever beat some Metolachlor out there for yellow nutsedge residual control.

Jason: And I think the important thing you said there, Tommy, was “pretty good.” 

Tommy: Yeah. [laughter]

Jason: And that's about as good as it is. It's pretty good. [laughter] 

Tommy: Yep. [laughter]

Jason: If you envision residual herbicides in a treated area versus a non-treated area – like, you skip a strip in the field and you picture those really dense thick weeds versus a clean spot, you’re not out of that with Dual on yellow nutsedge. If you do have a strip that gets left untreated, for whatever reason, you'll be able to tell the difference. But it is not going to be daylight and dark difference. I mean, I would say fair and your definition of fair, whether that's in mine and Tommy world – 60% to 65%. Or whether it's 80%. Everybody's definition of that's going to be a little bit different, but it is not by any means 100% control – but you will get some suppression with it for sure.

Tommy: That's right. Yeah. It's a helper. It's not a home run hitter, but it definitely helps. And if you're in one of those bad fields, it can be a role player, that's for sure.

Jason: Sure. It is better than anything else.

Tommy: Yeah, that's right. [laughter]

Jason: It’s definitely worth a shot.

Tommy: I'm glad you mentioned that because I always have that conversation when I get asked, “well, what's best?” Well, this may be best. That doesn't mean it's good, right? It's best-case scenario. But yeah. So that's a good distinction, too. So we kind of went around the rice side of things. We might as well jump into rice, too. And really on my side and you can, break in too as I'm talking here, Jason. It always boils down to me for yellow nutsedge that ALS inhibitors are still the cream of the crop when it comes to that. League, as a residual option tends to be really good. But if we're trying to kill stuff that's up at POST, you know it goes back to the Halosulfuron. So the Permits, Permit Pluses, Gambits of the world, and I really don't have a preference between those three because it's all the Halosulfuron. So really to me any of those three can work depending on your price point and what else you might have out there you're trying to get. But that's what boils down to me as being the best-case scenario. I have had a little bit of luck with Loyant. It's kind of a little bit hit or miss, depends on size. It's just not near as consistent and good to me as ALSs are for yellow nutsedge. And then Basagran and Propanil is kind of in that OK category, too. If you hit it when it's small, you can do a pretty good job at burning it back. But it's not [pause] – the ALSs are definitely to me the best of the world there.

Jason: Yeah 100% agree with that, Tommy, in the Gambit or the Permit Plus or the Permit. Price and then maybe what your secondary targets are to those. You can separate those a little bit when you get into some weeds that are really, really bad. If you're the dude that's got them, they’re most of the time out of sight, out of mind. So thinking about things like spreading dayflower, Pennsylvania smartweed. Those species that you don't have maybe on a whole lot of acres, but if you have them, then they're probably up close to the top of your priority list. Texas weed is one that we have further south, mainly south of highway 82 in Mississippi. That can be really, really tough to control. Permit Plus does a nice job on that and Gambit does as well. So I would think about those ALSs in the context of, what else is out there that you're targeting? For example, Gambit may be a better choice than straight Halosulfuron, or Permit just because you've got another species out there that you want to pick up at the same time.

Tommy: Yeah, 100%. I agree. With that completely. Outside of yellow nutsedge, I think we got a good coverage on that one there. We do have a bunch of annual flatsedges that are probably fixing to come on now. I mean, we're hitting these higher temps. We're getting later in the season. Those things really want to start coming on now. How bad are your annual sedges over there in Mississippi, Jason? Do you deal a lot with rice flatsedge? You got other random ones? What are you dealing with on that front over there?

Jason: Rice flatsedge would be the primary annual sedge that we have. And it's bad in places. We have very little continuous rice. And then I guess, a lot of that continuous rice is also zero grade. There's some that's not, but it predominates on those acres. And then we have some in other areas too. We have a lot of rice that's one-and-one rice and beans and even one-and-two rice and beans. So we break up that cycle of that particular weed a lot. And the flatsedge was funny, man. When we first started picking up problems with resistant annual flatsedge, rice flatsedge - whichever name you want to use. There were guys that were  - they were rice guys, they were rice consultants. They didn't even know what that thing was, because they'd always controled it when they were controlling something else. Particularly in a Propanil based program. So they're spraying little grass and they were picking up that little sedge too, before it was even getting big enough to notice it was there. And then when it stopped dying, when we moved to a Permit-heavy system and it stopped dying, then it really became a real driver for us. But I think between our rotations and then some of the other treatments that we're using too, Sharpen for example, we kind of, I won’t say we have that one under control, but it's not a widespread problem for us like it was maybe 10 or 12 years ago.

Tommy: Yeah, and see, that one is really flaring back up bad over here now in the past couple of years. A lot because of the reason, like you said, just kind of the opposite way. When we had switched to the Permit, Permit Pluses, Gambit systems of the world, it was knocking all of those out and basically we were controlling all our sedges with one chemistry, right? The annual sedges, the yellow nutsedge, it didn't matter. We saw a sedge. Boom. We killed it with ALSs. Now all of a sudden, because we have such widespread ALS resistance in our rice flatsedge populations over here. Now, when we spray that we may knock out our yellow nutsedge, but all of a sudden we got all this other annual sedge and it's re-learning that, “OK, these are different species. We’ve got to control them differently now.” – And trying to go back through that whole process. So that's kind of where we're hitting now where we're having some issues. Like I said, with that ALS resistance being so widespread on our side, we don't really recommend the Permits, Gambits, any of those of the world any more for that. And we've gone strictly, mainly to like the Basagran and Propanils of the world, which is still a really good treatment. But if you got a blanket carpet population out there, getting good coverage and making sure you're hitting all those small little plants, can be a challenge. Loyant has been really good with us. If you can spray it, that comes with a whole other realm of problems, but Loyant has been very successful there. And Rogue with now with the new label post-flood is going to be, I think, a real nice option for Arkansas growers. If you're on zero grade or you're on straight leveed fields, there's some extra caveats there too. But I think that'll help out a lot of our growers over here as well, trying to get that back under control. And you mentioned the Sharpen PRE and stuff. Yeah, Sharpen and Bolero PRE add a lot too, if we can get those out, giving us some residual control especially now with some of this later planted rice. That'll go a long way as well. I'm 100% right there with you on that front, too. Get those out if you know you have a problem.

Jason: Most of the treatments that we've used targeting flatsedge in rice have been Propanil and Basagran or RiceBeaux. A fair amount of RiceBeaux goes out for that, in the fields that have it. But by and large we're not a big Propanil state, and so that application – the volume of it, the price of it – we get a little pushback from it. But those are, for us, the two best treatments either that Basagran, Propanil, or RiceBeaux.

Tommy: Yeah, right there with you too. As far as other crops, because I have started getting some random calls where it's popping up in our soybean acres because, maybe like that one-to-one rotation and things like that. And, generally it's somewhat similar to what we talked about with yellow nutsedge. Dual tends to be pretty good. Some of our PPO inhibitors do a little bit better on our annual sedges than like yellow nutsedge. So we already talked about the Sharpen front, but Valor products do a really good job too at knocking back those annual sedges, those kinds of things. Cotoran is actually pretty good in cotton acres. If you get that out there, especially with Brake, you should be knocking back your annual sedges pretty good. And then POST again, it kind of boils down to the Roundup, Liberties of the world or those tank mixes. If you happen to be in the Enlist system, the 2,4-D can do a pretty decent job on our annual sedges as well. All those acres are fairly limited though, in both Arkansas and Mississippi. So that's kind of hit or miss. But there are a few other options, at least for those annual sedges when it comes to our other crops, compared to like the yellow nutsedge where it's much more of a challenge.

Jason: I think we knocked this one out in our row crops pretty easy, most of the times. Where I do see it is when you have a field that's completely stale seedbed. So, maybe completely is not the right word to use, but say it had an early burndown and we didn't do anything at planting. So it didn't get our say Gramoxone and Boundary application that a lot of acres get. Or Gramoxone, Authority Elite – whatever pretreatment you would choose to include there at planting. Then in those wet spots, like now with the warmer temperature, still got some wet spots from the rain last week. You might see some here and there, but for the most part I think we're going to knock it out with that first POST treatment of Roundup.

Tommy: Yeah, I'd agree. The one other sedge I wanted to mention too, while we're on annual sedges, it's kind of a new one, mainly so far in Arkansas and in the Bootheal that I've been getting a lot of calls on too – is this white margined flatsedge? Have you had to deal with that at all over there? 

Jason: I have not. I've heard y'all talk about it, and to my knowledge, we don't have any and I haven't come across any personally. But if somebody has sent me a picture of it or something, then I misidentified it as something else. And I don't know of any that we have.

Tommy: I'll bring some seeds over in my pocket and drop it off for you, so you can deal with it, too. [laughter] It's just a whole different animal. I mean, it's very similar to rice flatsedge, right? – and our other annual flatsedges. But it's just because the ALSs don't work, we're battling it with the Loyants and Basagrans of the world, again, which come with their own problems, I guess, per se. And then if it does go uncontroled, it just gets so much bigger than rice flatsedge, that it takes down some rice. And some guys have been really struggling with it because of that. But again, basically our main recommendation has been trying to kind of treat it like rice flatsedge. It's ALS resistant, where the Permits and Gambits of the world aren't going to get it. League is not going to help PRE. It's using Valero up front to help as a residual, getting Basagran out, getting Loyant out if you can. We haven't gotten a lot of data with Rogue post-flood, but I have heard some reports that it seems to be working there, so that might be an option. If you’ve got a bad situation of it, you might be able to use Rogue and some zero grades things like that. So there is some options there on the rice acres for that. As far as our other crops, it's kind of the same thing I've seen. I've had good luck with Roundups, and a burned down Gramoxone has worked good on it. I haven't tested Liberty, but I'm assuming that would work as well. So it's kind of the same as the other sedges is when it comes to our other crops. But on those rice acres, it's been a little bit more of a challenge.

Jason: Tommy, do you know where that thing came from? I mean, is it an introduced species or is it one that you just started noticing more?

Tommy: That's a great question. I don't know officially where it came from. I do know it's kind of all originated, or where I've traced it back to at least, it's kind of up by the Deleplaine/Light area in Arkansas And it's from Ford Baldwin's era, because he had it ID’d by Dr. Bryson, the sedge guy, you know, the Sedge Doctor. And that's where like the original population that he ever messed with came from, and where he got it ID’d at. And then now, I've started getting more calls about it as we've started talking about it and showing pictures and getting the idea out there, some more people have started popping up. And man, I've had calls on it all the way down around DeWitt there in South Arkansas, all the way up in northeast Arkansas. The Bootheel has a lot of it. So I don't know. I like to blame Missouri. So I like to say it came out of Bootheel originally and just flowed down the Cache, basically, and went all the way down the state. But I don't know that for a fact. Like I said, the first kind of confirmed case when I talked to Ford about it, it came out of that Deleplaine area. And it's just kind of spread all over now.

Jason: You know, unrelated to sedge, we've got a few species like that  - that they're not new to the state, but then all of a sudden we can't kill them anymore. And then you wonder, were we ever killing them or not noticing them? Or why is this all of a sudden a problem? The one for the last couple of weeks has been Plains Coreopsis.

Tommy: Oh, yeah.

Jason: Really hard to kill. I don't really have a suggestion for it. And I also don't know why in the past two weeks I've gotten 15 pictures of it from different people. I've known it was there, for years. Just never – we were controlling it with something or something's unique about the weather this year that made it proliferate. There's a reason why I've gotten so many questions about it in the last two weeks, and I don't know what that is. And so this is probably a similar case. We probably tweaked a little something like we talked about with an ALS base program or not, and made this one just become more common and spread too. 

Tommy: That’s right. Yeah, that's been my line of thought too. So I'm right there with you on that one. Is there any other oddball sedges or even oddball weeds? Like you said, the Coreopsis this year. Is there anything else on the Mississippi side you've been really dealing with that's unique about this year that we should be on the lookout for in Arkansas?

Jason: Not for sedges. I will occasionally get a picture of a sedge and it's usually whatever that big, gnarly sedge is that you see growing in drainage canals and it's gotten out in the field and it feels like it's six feet tall, but it's like one clump of it. It’s more of an oddity than anything. So that would be the other comment I would make on sedge. Generally, related to that Plains Coreopsis, we have this yellow cress that we deal with, that's really gotten bad trying to do some work on that in the greenhouse and figure out what will control it. It is pretty unresponsive to a lot of our standard burndown treatments. And then Virginia pepperweed. Wow, just a lot of pepperweed. Sometimes it tracks in the areas where we have the yellow cress. Sometimes it doesn't. But I stopped and took a picture last week of a bean field that was, I mean, I would have been concerned with the amount of pepperweed that was in the field. And I wouldn't have even known that it was pepperweed, except that it was flowered out. I never looked at the leaves or the pepper weed before, until people started sending me pictures in February and asking me what it was, and I had to go figure it out. So those are three that are really oddities, that I hadn't been able to put my finger on. I can kind of explain it for 2022. Given that warm period that we had in the fall, but beyond this year, I mean, there's the yellow cress and the pepperweed are no more or less a problem this year than they were in 2021, so that does not completely explain them. Those are three that we're dealing with that I really don't have many answers for this point.

Tommy: Yeah. And those have kind of started to make their way over for us too. I think both Tom and I have gotten a couple random pictures about the yellow cress after we've talked to you about it and started to be able to pick that up. And the pepperweed, I'm exactly the same as you. I got some of those winter annual pictures back in February. I’m like, man I don't know, these random leaves and stuff like that.

Jason: Yeah, it’s Shepherds Purse or something. Don’t worry about it.

Tommy: Yeah, right. And then all of a sudden the flowers are popping up. It's like, oh, crap. Yeah, that's definitely what pepperweed. Whoops. Alright. Well, now we’ve got a problem. So yeah, I've been right there with you, too. Again, it's been too widespread this year and taken up too many fields to just be the year. It's been there. There's been something else happening, and now all of sudden this year, maybe made it worse, but it's. Yeah, I don't know. It’s pretty crazy.

Jason: So last week I was in a text group and Tom was in there, and I posed a question about mayweed. I had a guy had a bunch of mayweed in the field, and Tom mentioned something about ALS herbicides and maybe y’all even have some ALS resistant mayweed.

Tommy: A little bit. Yeah.

Jason: But I can't really track these other species with anything like that. I don't know what is making these particular ones so bad all of a sudden.

Tommy: Yeah, I don't know either. It seems ridiculous, at this point, that we're still battling winter annuals in the middle of May, so that’s kind of frustrating.

Jason: Yeah. When it's got to be every bit of 93 or 94 outside, here.

Tommy: That's right. Yeah, well, awesome. Just a couple of other things I wanted to mention. I'm sure you got a couple of things you wanted to mention here too on these fronts, Jason. But again, on the outreach front, I just wanted to tell all our listeners, if you ever need any information from us, make sure to check out our website, Make sure to grab an MP44 pub for all our recommended chemicals and things like that for all different crops and different uses. You can get that from your local Extension office or download from online. Make sure to sign up for our texting service if you haven't done that. And as always, feel free to get a hold of us individually with any questions. Give us a call, send us a text, contact us through your county agent, anything along those lines. Jason, anything on the Extension front at Mississippi State there you want to mention?

Jason: Yeah, I'll just direct everyone to our crops blog, which is the Mississippi Crop Situation. It's been around for a long time. Started out as a newsletter with entomologist way back when and it grew into a full blown blog, I don't know, 12 or 14 years ago. And now it's evolved into our podcast, which is the Mississippi Crop Situation podcast. We link all those episodes on the blog, so they're easy to find if you're accustomed to looking at the written information that Mississippi State Extension Row Crop folks put out, then you can find the episodes of our podcast there as well. So ours is pretty general. We hit a lot of topics – entomology, plant pathology, weed science, when it's relevant. We kind of just chase what's going on at the time. And so I would encourage your listeners to check us out too. Yeah, we're good for driving down the road for 25 or 30 minutes and get a little bit different perspective on what's going on in the Delta.

Tommy: Yeah, that's right. And there's a lot of situations that go back and forth between our two states. So getting information from a couple of different places is never a bad thing. That's always a good idea. Final thing, just a couple of thank you's. As always, I want to thank the Arkansas Commodity Boards, USDA-NIFA and USDA-ARS for contributing a lot of the funding that goes to our research programs, as well as helping provide Extension opportunities that we're able to do, such as our podcast series here. Jason, I'm sure you got a lot of funding that you'd like to thank, too, so I'll let you take over. 

Jason: Yeah, we have all these similar sources that support our research here at Stoneville and in Starkville as well. So we appreciate that. I appreciate you inviting me on here, Tommy, and giving me an opportunity to share some thoughts with you.

Tommy: No, thank you for joining and providing your insights and what you have been recommending and dealing with over there, too. I really appreciate it. So is there any final comments, anything last minute to add?

Jason: No. If we can do anything for you, man, just holler at me. Anybody in South Arkansas, I'm pretty close, pretty readily available. So if I can do anything for any of ya'll, just give me a call.

Tommy: Awesome. Well, thank you, sir. And thank you to all to our listeners for continuing to join us for the podcast. And so with that, I just want to say thanks for joining us for this episode of the Weeds AR Wild Podcast series on Arkansas Rock Crops Radio.

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