Why? How long? These questions did not begin to be asked but they have been asked continually throughout history. These question are asked even in God's book. Psalm 74 is one example of this.
Psalm 74 is a national lament. Psalms 44, 79, 89, 137 show great similarities. The book of Lamentations contains many such laments. It is hard for us to imagine the grief of the people when the Babylonians invaded their land and killed some with the sword and starved others in a siege. The lost their land, their king, and their temple and many were asking why?
74:1-3 Will Your anger burn forever, O God?
74:4-8 The horrible scene at the destruction of God's house
74:9-11 Why does God withhold His judgment when He could destroy His foe in a moment?
74:12-17 God is praised in that He performs mighty acts of power
74:18-23 Remember the wicked and do not forget Your people?