Battle Ground History

Episode 17 - The Invention of Printing Press versus the Industrial Revolution

August 19, 2018 Season 1 Episode 17
Battle Ground History
Episode 17 - The Invention of Printing Press versus the Industrial Revolution
Chapters
Battle Ground History
Episode 17 - The Invention of Printing Press versus the Industrial Revolution
Aug 19, 2018 Season 1 Episode 17
Mark Schauss
The Invention of the Printing Press vs the Industrial Revolution go head-to-head.
Show Notes Transcript
The Invention of the Printing Press and the Industrial Revolution are two events that shook the world. Find out who moves on to the second round of the Events bracket

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Speaker 1:
0:17
Welcome to battleground history, the invention of the printing press versus the industrial revolution. Today we introduce you to two of the most earth shattering events in human history. On the one side, we have the invention of the printing press and invention, which would allow for the sharing of information to the masses. On the other hand, we have the industrial revolution, which would change the fabric of human existence. First up is the printing press that would come about from the brain of one Johannes Gutenberg in 1439. Until then, the ability to mass produce printed word and images was painfully slow. Woodblock printing was around from about the eighth century during the Tang Dynasty in China with movable metal type actually appearing in Korea in the 13th century. Of course, these methods were faster than copying books by hand, which is how most bibles at the time were created.
Speaker 1:
1:22
We all know that the advent of the printing press was to allow for the distribution of information to a more significant number of people, but the question begs, what situation precipitated the need for the printing press? The first reason might surprise you. It was the aftermath of the black death of 13, 46 through 13, 53. Now I would assume you're wondering what this pandemic has to do with the ascension of the printing press, but hear me out. It is estimated that the plague in Europe during the 14th century, killed between 30 to 60 percent of the population were between 75 to 100 million people in Europe and another 100 million people in Asia. With so many deaths, the remaining people inherited their properties, causing the substantial increase in net worth of many of the $350 million people left. I want you to visualize this living in your house or your apartment and half the apartments or the houses around you no longer have any tenants.
Speaker 1:
2:33
Nobody did collect the mortgages for nobody collect anything, so you just go, well, I liked that house and that like that one and I'll just tear the fences down or break the walls down and I'll just take all of these apartments or houses this kind of what happened. In other words, cows and sheep and other livestock and land that went unused. So that's where the worth the net worth of each person that took advantage of it this time and survived the plague, was able to go up. Now, on top of all of that, many of the monks who were able to copy books died in the plague. The reason for the unusually high mortality rate among the men of the cloth was the crowded conditions of the monasteries. Now it's an increase of economic worth comes associate cultural shift, and in particular religion, there was a great schism in western Christianity.
Speaker 1:
3:27
Between Thirteen 78 and 1416 led my men such as John White, cliff at Oxford University and Yon who's at the Charles University in Prague, questioning authority, especially the Catholic Church, began to spread. The problem was handwritten manuscripts and flyers were tedious and most of the scribes of the day we're still employed by the church. Necessity is the mother invention, as they say, and the obligation to create a faster means of sharing information was a significant need. There was a demand for books from the Post Black Death Era, and Johannes Gutenberg saw his opening a Goldsmith by trade. Gutenberg knew how to shape metal, which allowed him to create as type basis pieces in an easy to use, lead based alloy. The Latin alphabet was also easier to use than the of graphics systems like Chinese characters and Japanese contract. All you needed was 26 characters, not hundreds to create a new word. There was the development of another technology that helps make the printing press possible and that was the ability to mass produce paper instead of Parchman by the 14th century.
Speaker 1:
4:49
Numerous paper making centers were popping up in Italy and Germany. The cost of making paper also dropped. The last Technological Hump was the inks used paper was not a good fit with the standard water based inks as they bled too much with Gutenberg did was to create oil based ink which worked well with the middle type setting type setting. He invented the printing revolution as it is called, exploded throughout Europe in just a few years starting in Gutenberg shop in Germany in 1439. Within 40 years, there were a hundred and 10 places in the continent. In the 60 years after the first page was run, close to 20 million copies were produced. The effect on North on European life was enormous. Martin Luther's tracks from his 95 thesis, 15, 17, were reproduced quickly over 300,000 times. The Protestant reformation would never have gotten as far as it did without the printing press. Theological questions can be shared with the masses.
Speaker 1:
6:03
Science can be passed on to be contemplated upon. Newspapers began to pop up. Conveying recent news. What many historians point out is one of the greatest outcomes of the invention of the printing press is the democratization of knowledge. No longer did you have to belong to the nobility to access education. No longer did you have to be wealthy, but more importantly, the church and the state could no longer be able to control what you could read or learn about. Although they most certainly tried with the increased access to knowledge, begin to see the rise of local languages and the decline of Latin giving even more people. The ability to learn the economies of the countries who embrace the printing press were also significantly improved. You can now share manuals and how to build bridges, buildings, or how to do double entry bookkeeping. The spread of knowledge would not have another explosion like the invention of the printing press until the creation of the Internet in the 20th century.
Speaker 1:
7:13
Of course, the Gutenberg press was only the start of the printing revolution. Newer faster printers came online allowing for more print to come out of each shop at lower costs. In 18, 14, the times of London produced 1,110 impressions per hour by 1920 with a platen press. They could triple the output. The invention by Yohanis Gutenberg changed the world and still has a major impact on us now to put it into perspective segment of the podcast, and 1439, Pope Pius the third was born the battle of Groton. Nick was for the other slub. The third crushed those sites in Poland and the town of Plymouth, England was the first tenant incorporated by the British parliament. Next step is another earth shattering event that changed the world forever, the industrial revolution. Prior to 17, 60, most manufacturing was done in homes or small shops using simple tools or in rare incidences machine's life was simple but challenging and most people were poor. The average person lived in a small village or town and their lives were focused on farming. Fundamental change in the everyday lives of everyone was about to change and that transformation began in Great Britain.
Speaker 1:
8:45
There are many reasons why England was the birthplace of the industrial revolution. First, it was politically stable and it was an island where wars were not being fought all the time, like on the continent was also a colonial power which gave him access to raw materials that others could not gather. Britain also had enormous deposits of coal and iron ore, which is crucial to industrial revolution first industry to be transformed within textiles. Previously, merchants would drop off raw materials to the small shops and homes and pick up the finished goods. This was an inefficient way to provide products and limited supply as well as being relatively expensive with the invention of the spinning jenny by James Hargraves in 17, 60 for an individual can produce multiple spools of thread in the same time they could create one. The power loom was developed in the seventies and eighties whereby vast quantities of cost can be made.
Speaker 1:
9:52
And 17, 12, Thomas newcomen created the first practical steam engine in the 17 seventies, James Watt significantly improved it, which made steam available to power machinery, trains and ships to transport goods around the world. To understand the ramifications, we look at the amount of raw cotton imported into Britain and 1752 point nine. Two point $5. Million pounds of raw cotton entered the ports. Thirty seven years later, it was 22 million pounds and by 1850 it was 588 million pounds. With all of this production came an increase in the average wage of a worker in English. Worker in lecture made six times the amount of salary than the cottage industry worker in India did. With more money comes an increased buying power, other industries that saw explosions, efficiency and manufacturing capabilities included iron making and the creation of machine tools with these improvements also comes some adverse side effects, the conditions that the workers who labored in the newer, bigger shops and factories were at times horrific and very dangerous.
Speaker 1:
11:12
It led to some riots in England as a people who used to work in their cottages, rebelled against the changes. Those who oppose the revolution were often called luddites. Here's the quote I found from my research quote, the word ludite refers to a person who is opposed to technological change. The term is derived from a group of early 19th century English workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery as a means of protest. They were supposedly led by a man named Ned, lewd, who may have been an apocryphal figure. Transportation was transformed from horse drawn wagons and boats transporting goods to steam locomotives and steam powered ships moving greater piles of product faster and further than ever before. Not only that, but people could travel further and further away from their home bases. In 18, 50 Great Britain had over 6,000 miles of railroads in Russia. At the same time, a country vastly more massive than its counterpart, had about 565 70. I mean the gap continued for decades. There was so much more than happened due to the industrial revolution, including improvements in chemicals, cement, gaslights glass making, agriculture, mining, transportation, roads and railways, but the real change was in the standard of living.
Speaker 1:
12:46
According to economist Robert e Dot Lucas junior quote, for the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth. Nothing remotely like this economic behavior as mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility now, it didn't happen overnight, but net wages did substantially rise over the years and the life expectancy of children's show dramatic increases in London. For instance, the number of children who died before the age of five went from a staggering 74 point five percent in the years between 1730 to 1749 to 31 point eight percent in the years between 18, 10 and 18, 29. I could go on and on for days about all the changes in society caused by the industrial revolution, but this is not the time and place for that. Maybe someone's going to do a podcast solely on the topic, which is something I certainly would listen to and of course we're going to answer some more questions about that. If the industrial revolution moves on to the second round. Now, we've talked a lot about the changes in Great Britain due to the improved industrialization, but other countries followed suit quickly after that. Surprisingly Belgium was the second country to benefit from the change. France was next followed by Germany, which became a powerhouse in the chemical industry along with countries like Sweden, Japan, and of course the United States.
Speaker 1:
14:29
This information begs the question, why did the industrial revolution began in Europe and that places like China, India, and the Middle East, which actually we're all far more advanced in the year $1,500 than their counterpart. Some historians believe that the advent of the printing press was one of the impetuses behind rippeys dominance. It'll have manuals to be constructed to educate people about the new technologies. Other dismiss this as they cite historical data showing that the other countries had the printing press as well. The one theory that seems to answer the question best is that you had so many different countries and languages that it had a competitive edge that they are trying to outdo their neighbor. That's what gave Europeans the will to innovate. According to David Landis and his work, the unbound promiscuous. There were six reasons. One, the period of peace and stability which followed the unification of England and Scotland to.
Speaker 1:
15:36
There were no trade barriers between England and Scotland. Three, the rule of law and reinforcing property rights and respecting the sanctity of contracts, number for a straightforward legal system that allowed the formation of joint stock companies known as corporations. Five, the absence of tolls, which have largely disappeared from Britain by the 15th century, but were an extreme burden on goods elsewhere in the world and six, a free market known as capitalism. Another theory is that Great Britain had what is called the Protestant work ethic, which espoused hard work, discipline and frugality. This is a hotly debated but a palatable theory based on the information we have now, we go into the scoring. First off, we have 15 points to give out based on the number of people involved in the event. While the printing press invention was started by one man and spread to a few thousand pretty quickly.
Speaker 1:
16:40
The industrial revolution had hundreds of inventions involving millions of people. 15 points go to it with five going to the printing press, 20 points need to be doled out based on how the event affected the world at the time. One cannot diminish the immediate impact of printing press on Europe. While the industrial revolution took some time before it spread from Great Britain to the rest of the world, for these reasons, I'm giving the printing press 20 with 12 going to the revolution. Next step is the 25 points for the longterm impact on the world. The invention of the printing press changed our world mostly for the better and made this spread of knowledge available to everyone. You're no longer needed to be wealthier, connected to learn things. You just needed to know how to read. The industrial revolution changed everything. People were lifted up from day to day existence, worrying about how to feed their family and themselves to a world where you can travel almost anywhere.
Speaker 1:
17:46
Enjoy a far better lifestyle than our ancestors. For these reasons, I give the industrial revolution 25 points and the invention of the printing press 20 now for the big point 40 for the immediate effect on the country or countries involved. While the press did have an almost immediate impact, the industrial revolution from its beginning in 1762, it's an between 18, 20 to 18, 40 drastically changed everything. Industrial Revolution, 40 printing, press 35. Our totals and today's historical event battle is the invention of the printing press 80, the industrial revolution 92. The winter will face off against World War One and the second round. I hope you enjoyed today's podcast. Join me next time when we head off to the villains bracket where we start with the Roman emperor who frightened all of Rome Caligula against the Japanese general who ran a biological weapons program during war to shadow. Don't forget to join us on facebook or groups growing a little bit. Uh, one thing I really, really asked everybody, please review me on your pod Catcher, whether it's itunes, spotify, stitcher, whatever you have. It really helps to give them more and more people involved in knowing about this podcast. So until next time, remember, we're not the makers of history. We are history.
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