Battle Ground History

Episode 19 - Louis XIV versus Franklin D. Roosevelt

September 02, 2018 Season 1 Episode 19
Battle Ground History
Episode 19 - Louis XIV versus Franklin D. Roosevelt
Chapters
Battle Ground History
Episode 19 - Louis XIV versus Franklin D. Roosevelt
Sep 02, 2018 Season 1 Episode 19
Mark Schauss
King Louis XIV of France faces US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Show Notes Transcript
In today's battle from the Leaders bracket, we discuss the lives and impact of the Sun King, Louis XIV of France and the longest serving President in US history, Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

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Speaker 1:
0:17
Welcome to battleground history, episode 19 Louis the 14th versus Franklin d Dot Roosevelt. Today's episode, we'll compare the tenure of two leaders, the Sun King of France, the longest reigning monarch and European history, Louis the 14th against the longest serving president of US history. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, born on September fifth, 16, 38 at the Chateau de soldier, Germaine Ole to King Louis, the 13th, and Anna Austria. Let me do a doll the future King Louis, the 14th was considered a gift from God as his mother had given birth, only distill born children during the 23 years of marriage to her husband. His father died when he was a mere four years old, Louis the 13th, knowing he was gravely ill of tuberculosis named regency counsel the service region to a son instead of the more traditional naming of his wife, Queen. And in that role, she was not to abide by her late husband's edict and had the will and old by the parliament to Perry on May 14th, 16, 43.
Speaker 1:
1:27
She was now the sole region. The young boy was to remain very close to his mother until her death in 16, 66 during the early part of his reign. The 30 years' war was raging on in Europe for about 16, 18 until the peace of Westphalia was signed on May 15th, 16, Forty Eight. Louie was by then nine years old. Piece would not last very long as a civil war was to break out in France, known as the fault it came out right after the peace treaty. It was started by parts of the French nobility, hardened by years of combat. This revolt led by guests don't, of Orleans, the grand condo and Armando barbone. Prince Conti lasted until 1659 with the institution of absolute monarch. Monarch isn't winning out with Queen Anne at the helm. She tried to make the case that the king of France ruled by the way of divine rights given to him directly from God.
Speaker 1:
2:27
Louis would see this happening as a growing boy, which would lead to despise Paris and the nobles who threatened him and his mother when Louis reached the age of majority on September seven, 16, 51 at the age of 13. The country's finances were in a shamble mostly because of the wars that his father fought as well as the embezzlements that had gone on for years by cardinals Mesora rushlow in Nicholas full cray. The government was also plagued by inefficient taxation which Louis had reformed from 1661 to 60 16, 65. The French treasury went from being in debt to having a surplus. The problem was most of the taxes were paid by the peasants as it was a deal from the past whereby the king was free to raise taxes without consent as long as he didn't tax the nobles. This was the hottest successors, especially Louis the 16th who has to pay.
Speaker 1:
3:26
The ultimate price is life. In 16, 60, now king was made to marry his cousin, Maria Theresa of Spain. This marriage was to help secure the peace between Spain and France who are on opposite sides of the 30 years' war of the six children she was to give birth to only one Louis. The ground doe fan would make it through childhood. She was a devoted wife as he was a devoted husband for the first year of marriage, but after that we became a serial philanderer having numerous mistresses, some of whom were to bear him, countless illegitimate children, but Louie, you know, he believed that this was normal because he was king and you could do as he pleased. When he was a child. He wants wrote quote, kings are appointed by God and they may do as they please. Years later, he made the statement in a same one.
Speaker 1:
4:24
I am the state. By the time of Louis was 22. There were actually titles given to the official royal mistress called Matris on teacher while researching the life of the sun king. My head spun, trying to figure out who was his mistress, when and what kind of influence did they have or have not. His own mother and hand picked one of them, Louise de la Valliere to distract him from his affair with his brother in law, Philip Duke to Orleans wife, Princess Henrietta Louise would have four children with the king starting with the first one, born in 16, 63 and the last and 16, 67. By then a new woman caught Louise. I won't. Francoise Athanase the marquee demote dishpan. She was accused of by some of using witchcraft to seduce and attract the king aside from bedding women. The one thing that defined Louise Rain is the wars he led France into the three major ones were the Franco Dutch war of 16, Seventy two to [inaudible] 78, the war of the League of Algebra Berg, also known as the nine years war of 16, 80 eight to 1697, and the war of the Spanish succession from 17 to 1714 after the Franco Dutch war Louis, the 14th became the most powerful ruler in Europe.
Speaker 1:
5:53
The French were the leading force and was the second most populated country with only Russia. Having more people, the king's aggressive foreign policy was a mirror of his own personality. The problem was that the cost of his way of doing things was enormous. By the end of the nine years war, France was an economic crisis and almost broke all the while. Louie was also exerting greater control over the Catholic Church in France and 1682, the declaration of the clergy of France gave them more power over the church at the expense of the pope. Unless the king approved have a papal edict, it was invalid. This greatly enraged the pope at the time, innocent the 11th concurrently to all the wars and declarations. Louis the 14th was building his grand palace versa. Earlier I mentioned how the king despised Paris. Well, because of this, he built a new palace about 20 kilometers outside the capital.
Speaker 1:
6:54
If you have not visited the palace, you must go. When I was an exchange student in France in 1972, I was staying in a suburb of Paris. Mood don't, which wasn't very far away. I went there many times and was odd each time. What was interesting about versace and how low he used it, he made the nobles, he's so detested along with anyone who wanted his favorite to stay at the palace. The king would watch them making mental notes to himself about their behavior. He also had the letters opened as well. Here's an interesting quote about this. Moreover, by entertaining, impressing and domesticating them when extravagant luxury and other distractions, Louis not only cultivated public opinion of him, but he also ensured the aristocracy remained under his scrutiny. Despite Louise Battles with the Catholic church, he was a strong believer in Catholicism or protestantism. In 15, 98, the edict of non case signed by King Henry, the fourth of France, Louis Grandfather, gave the huguenots also known as calvinists, freedom of religion, the edict of Fontainebleau signed by Louie and 1685 revoked the rights, forcing many huguenots to leave France for be forced to convert to Catholicism.
Speaker 1:
8:17
Some members of my father's side of the family came to Germany fleeing these very persecutions of the Protestants, the war of the League of Augsburg. Then the war of Spanish succession began a downward spiral of Francis Power in Europe. The Battle of, of over the succession of the King of Spain posts Charles the seconds death was to leave France broke and humiliated the war, would also cost the lives of over 2 million people as well as significantly weakening his country. The war ended in August of [inaudible]. 17, 14, just 13 months before the sun king would die. Louis, the 14th would die painfully of gangrene likely due to diabetes. On September first 17, 15, four days before his 77th birthday, he ruled France for 72 years. He also outlived his son, so while dying he named his five year old grandson, Louis the 15th as is there now for putting it into perspective segment.
Speaker 1:
9:23
Since Lilly ruled for so long, I don't share what was going on in the years right before his death. The first Mardi Gras parade in America was held in what was to be known as mobile, Alabama. Peter, the great move the capital of Russia from Moscow to St Petersburg, a Jacobite revolt occurs in Scotland. Daniel Defoe publishes his book, Robinson Caruso and Swedish troops occupied Norway. Next step, we'll review the life and career of the 32nd president of the United States of America. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Fdr, as he was known to the American people, was to be the president of the US during two. It's three most trying events, World War II in the Great Depression, civil wars. The third great event is ranking among the all time greats is usually in the top three. That is, unless you ask a diehard conservative who would like to rank him towards the bond, whatever side you take. Roosevelt's tenure as president cast a huge shadow on the history of his country, born into a wealthy family on January 30th, 18, 82 in Hyde Park, New York.
Speaker 1:
10:36
His parents, Chaves Roosevelt and mother, Sarah and Delano were six cousins. The roosevelts could be traced to the 17th century as merchants and ship builders. While the Delano's they came to America on the Mayflower, franklins rise to the presidency was not likely because of his wealth. As Robert McKell vine puts it in his biography of FDR, Franklin Delano Roosevelt background was similar in important respects to those are the first six presidents of the United States, but very different from those of later presidents. The early presidents were men have privilege, either Virginia planters or Massachusetts is after the revolt of the common man resulted in Andrew Jackson's election in 18, 28. The route to the presidency changed dramatically after that. President Schill aspirants. We're expected to be self made. Men preferably have logged Kevin Birth accused of having been born privileged. A candidate can expect a swift end to his campaign. The principle of exceptions to this tradition where Theodore Roosevelt and his fifth cousin Franklin, while nowhere near the wealthiest of families there are high social status made, many of the nouveau riche self made millionaires.
Speaker 1:
12:02
Chellus ftrs mother was his father's second wife in 26 years younger than him. His half brother James was 30 years older, which made Franklin pretty much an only child growing up. They frequently traveled mainly to Europe. These trips allowed the young boy to become conversant in both German and French. His family also believed that it was the duty of people of privilege to give back to the community, sort of a sense of civic responsibility. This was to mold. His personality is he grew up never a great student. He went to private schools like Groton in Massachusetts than Harvard University. Franklin greatly admired his headmaster at Groton and to copy buddy, but it was his cousin Theodore, who he admired the most when he ascended to the presidency in 1901. After the assassination of William Mckinley Franklin knew what he wanted to become in life. He was in his fifth year at Harvard when his cousin, cousin became president.
Speaker 1:
13:07
It was also the year that he became engaged to his fifth cousin, Anna Eleanor. The two would work together, a sort of political partnership from the 19 twenties when he became the governor of New York state to his death in 1945. The two were reformers and progressive's and fought hard against the political machine in New York known as Tammany Hall. When Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat was elected president in 1912, Roosevelt would be appointed assistant secretary of the Navy, a position he was to hold throughout World War One, ending in 1920. During that time, he ran for the US Senate seat in New York against the wishes of Tammany Hall. His run was not only unsuccessful, but it was an outright disaster as he lost in the primary by a three to one margin. Roosevelt's served admirably in his position in the navy traveling to Europe in 1918 where we would use some of the action close to the front.
Speaker 1:
14:08
When he returned to the US, eleanor found love letters from her social secretary, Lucy Mercer, to her husband. She was furious. Eleanor demanded that Franklin end the affair and threatened him with divorce. If that had happened, he would never been elected to public office as an that Hara divorces were not publicly acceptable. FDR swore he would end the affair immediately. It would never stray again. What she ultra ultimately did not do, while the two were publicly, we're husband and wife. Their private life was no longer that close. What did come out of this marital crisis was a political partnership between eleanor and Franklin, which started in earnest in 1920 when he became the Democratic nominee for vice president on the ticket with James Cox of Ohio. While they lost the election to Warren, GE, harding, Calvin coolidge, it did thrust the 39, 38 year old FDR into the national attention the next year in August 19, 21 while vacationing in Campo Bello island, Franklin fell ill.
Speaker 1:
15:17
It was thought for many years that FDR had developed polio, but newer evidence suggests that he actually had beyond Bra Syndrome from then on, whatever the disease was, he needed help to standard walk well, those around him sought not to have the press picture him as an invalid. It was actually common knowledge that he had a serious affliction. In 19, 28, Democrats asked Fdr to run for governor of New York as the current holder of the office. Al Smith was their nominee for president. At first he hesitated, but he was convinced to run. While Smith was defeated in a landslide, even losing in his home state of New York, Roosevelt won his election by just one percentage point, just one year into his time as governor. The US fell into the great depression. Well, president hoover in many state governors believed that the situation was a temporary. One. Roosevelt thought otherwise is aggressive. Ideas during the hard times made them a very popular man as was seen in his reelection bid in 1930, where we won by 14 percent in 1932, he tried to get the Democratic nomination for president, but it was met with opposition from none other than Al Smith. It took three ballots to get the two thirds majority needed, but he was eventually successful. His vice president was John Nance Garner, who at the time was the speaker of the house who rarely saw eye to eye with the newly elected president.
Speaker 1:
16:55
The months leading up to his taking office after the election where we beat Herbert Hoover were some of the worst times of the Great Depression. In February 1933, he went on a cruise with a number of influential bankers, including Vincent Astor. Many thought he had forgotten the people who elected him and was siding with the wealthy when he returned, Fdr was the target of an assassin, Giuseppe's Angara. While Franklin was not hit, Anton Surmac, the mayor of Chicago was killed on March fourth, 19, 33, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated as the 32nd president of United States of America. He took the reins of a country where 2 million people were homeless. Thirty two of the 48 states had closed their banks and industrial output of the nation with half of what it was in 1929. These would definitely desperate times, not since the civil war had the country been through crisis like the Great Depression would fdr did in his first hundred days of his presidency was filled with new legislation to help bring the country out of the massive hole that the previous administration did.
Speaker 1:
18:07
Very little to resolve the move to save the US economy was known as the new deal. The first new deal contained a number of measures that actually did very little to bring the economy back. What it did do was as authored McKell, vine states in his biography of FDR quote, did provide people with a sense that their president and government cared about their suffering and we're trying to help. Many from the conservative side of the aisle have said that Roosevelt ran through their legislation he created, but that isn't true only to loss the economy act and the civilian conservation core or CCC came from his desk. The other 13 major acts came from members of Congress and as advisors, what Fdr was able to do was to use what his cousin teddy called a bully pulpit. If there's anything you can say about Roosevelt is that he could rally the people.
Speaker 1:
19:09
His speaking skills were second to none if not for that. This highly unlikely that all of those economic recovery bill would have passed. The first new deal went from 1933 to 1934, and while helping the economy a little bit, it wasn't a roaring success. It was meant to be. The second new deal was begun in 1935, which was to last through 1938. The second wave came up against stiff opposition from the conservative businessmen and their allies still with the economy in Shambles and Roosevelt being extremely popular with the people he was able to pass more legislation with the two most profound acts during the introduction of the social security system and the National Labor Relations Act. These were partially in response to the growing unrest and strikes happening around the country while he was dealing with internal strife. FDR was well aware that things in the rest of the world were deteriorating rapidly.
Speaker 1:
20:13
Europe was about to go up in flames and the Japanese were already fighting in China and other parts of Southeast Asia. That and the communist threat that was the Soviet Union was also on his mind. The American people were dead set against the US entering any foreign war, but roosevelt well outwardly agreeing with them was preparing for war. So when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December seventh, 19, 41, FDR rally the people to fight the enemy with his famous line about the attack a day that will live in infamy. His leadership during the war, especially early on when things weren't going so well, was reassuring to the American people. Roseville. Also, Kate Blake handles his relationship with his allies, first Churchill of the United Kingdom, and later Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union. In the midst of all that was going around him, Roosevelt broke with the tradition of stepping aside after serving two terms in office, something started by George Washington.
Speaker 1:
21:21
He firmly believed that he was the only person capable of winning the war because of his extraordinary leadership skills. He won both the third and fourth term with piece, but the stress was wearing them down on April twelfth, 19, 45, just weeks before the surrender of Germany, Franklin Delano Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Now onto the scoring. This one is pretty much a slam dunk for the King of France. I mean, he lasted for 72 years. Well, FDR was president for a little over 12. Louis gets 15 points, Roosevelt five. Next, we have to award the points for their effect on the rest of the world in their time. Louie has significant influence over the affairs of Europe during his reign, but ftrs impact was global. For this reason, I Will Award Roosevelt that full 20 points below. He's right up there with 18. The next score, 25 points we have to give out.
Speaker 1:
22:25
Is there a lasting effect on the world? Louis, the 14th has had a long time to see the impact he has had on his world and while substantial, I don't think it comes close to rivaling FDR. Twenty five points for the president, 18 for the sun king. Finally, we have the big points for how they affected their country for the better. Louis really didn't do a great job for his country, especially the peasants and fact. Much of what he did would come unraveled during the French revolution and the subsequent era of Napoleon as for Franklin Delanor Roosevelt, whatever side of the political fence you're on. He was the man who help lead as a nation to victory in World War Two and many would say he instituted a number of things that would benefit the common man. Yes, he did create a bureaucratic behemoth which can be argued, has hindered the United States, but I'm still going to give them the full 40 points of King Louis the 14th, getting 25. The final score is 90 to 76. FDR over the sun, King Louis the 14th. I hope you enjoyed today's podcast. In the next round, Franklin Delano Roosevelt will face off against the holy Roman Emperor Charles the fifth. Join me next week as we pit the Italian hero, Giuseppe Garibaldi against one of the greatest figures in world history, Napoleon Bonaparte. Don't forget to join us on facebook at the battleground history page, and please write a review on your favorite podcatcher, especially itunes. This will get the podcast noticed, so as always, remember, we are not the makers of history. We are history.
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