Welcome to battleground history, episode 22 Seppe Garibaldi versus Napoleon Bonaparte. Today's battle pits two of the greatest generals in world history. The first is the man known as quote hero of two worlds, the charismatic architect of Italian unification, Giuseppe Garibaldi. The next is one of the most recognizable names in human history. Once the most feared man in all of Europe, of course that can Napoleon Bonaparte. Before we get into these legendary leaders, I want to say that whoever loses this battle will automatically go into the loser's bracket where we put Albert Einstein in already. In my research into these two men, I came to realize that both are deserving of moving on, so it'd be a shame not to continue their stories and further rounds. This pairing is also very serendipitous, as you will see shortly, so onto our contestants. While I've heard of Garibaldi in the past and was aware of some of those accomplishments, I was surprised to learn how famous and influential he was in the 19th century. In his biography of the men initially published in 1965, Christopher Hibbert lays out how well known Garibaldi was with this quote from his preface. One hundred years ago. Garibaldi was perhaps the best known name in the world. There were streets and squares named after him in a hundred different towns from Naples to Montevideo statuettes of him. Busts medallions, chain of figurines were almost as common in Manchester as in Milan, in Boston as an belonging postcards garishly depicting his messianic features were sold in their millions. You could drink a Garibaldi wine where a Garibaldi blouse see it. Garibaldi musical eat Garibaldi biscuits. Here comes the first bit of serendipity between Garibaldi Napoleon. Napoleon was born in Corsica, which is now part of modern day France, but at the time was more Italian than French. Giuseppe Garibaldi was born on July fourth, 18. Oh, seven and nice. Which is modern day France. Nice was taken away from the Kingdom of Piedmont 10 years earlier by none other than Napoleon I just sent. These family was somewhat poor but hard working and quite religious Catholics, especially his mother, Rosa. If they had their druthers, their son would have become a priest. They even went so far as to hire an Augustinian monk as his first tutor during Garibaldi, his later years, he was certainly not very devout as he viewed the priesthood as quote the enemy of the whole human race, black brode, pestilence, scum of humanity and emanation from health. His native language was Ligurian, a Gallo Italk language with this second language being French. According to his biography, quote, Italian did not come quickly to him in later life. His accent, grammar and spelling, all betrayed his frontier origins give up all these passion. Early on was life at sea. Both his father and grandfather were sailors, and while his parents tried to dissuade the young boy from following in their footsteps, they allowed them to become a cabin boy. When he was 16 the following year, Giuseppe went with his father to deliver a cargo of wine to Rome. This trip was to make an indelible mark on the young boy. He wrote, quote, the room that I be held with the eyes of my youthful imagination was the room of the future. The room that I never despaired of even when I was shipwrecked, dying, banished to the farthest steps of the American forest, the dominant thought and inspiration of my whole life. 18, 33 was to be another turning point in Garibaldi. His life. He was on a voyage aboard the schooner clarinda delivering oranges to Constantinople. Here he met men like Giuseppe Bozenie, whose ideas have a unified Italy stirred deep emotions in Garibaldi. There he learned about the gospel of the descencion who said, quote the whole of society or to strive towards the improvement of the conditions both moral and physical of the poorest class. Shortly after the trip, he became a member of the young Italy movement and then signed up with the carbon are revolutionary group. They tried an armed rebellion in Piedmont in February 18, 34, which failed. There were boldy fled, but was tried in abstentia, sentenced to death, which caused them to escape to marcy. From there, he headed first to Tunisia, then to Brazil, where we joined in with a group of separatists to fight him. What is known as the Ragamuffin war? It is hearing met his first wife and I'm Maria, that Hey Zeus Riviera Dasilva, better known as Anita. They would have four children, three of whom made it to adulthood. Anita would fight alongside her husband first in Brazil than in Montevideo, Uruguay, where the country fought against the Argentinians trying to invade them. It was here that deer, a bollywood joined the free masons using their network to find other progressive men like himself and their struggles against the despotic regimes in Europe and South America. Giuseppe would return to Italy in 18, 48 to fight in the revolutions in the Italian states. They were fighting against both the Austrians and the French to free themselves from foreign influence. Garrett baldies, leadership of small bands of sometimes ill equipped men became legendary during the march to seek refuge in Venice. His wife, Anita died while carrying their fifth child, forced to leave Italy once again. You went to Tangiers first, but eventually made his way to New York City where we stayed for awhile. He traveled the world as a captain of various merchant ships to seppe was biding his time as he was convinced that Italy was not yet ready to unify in 18, 54, his exile would end with his return to Janella. Garibaldi was then notified of his brother Felicis death, and that his inheritance was 35,000 lira with the money he bought part of an island of Capri era north of Sardinia. Later, Giuseppe would purchase the northern half of the island. This would be the place he would settle on during the last years of his life. Five years later, the second Italian war of independence broke out with Garibaldi being named major general leading, a volunteer unit known as the hunters of the Alps. This war, also known as the Franco Austrian war, would play a critical role in Italian independence. It pitted the French and start dinner runs against the Austrian empire. Giuseppe lead is meant to victory after victory over the Austrians many times being greatly outnumbered wins at Varese in Como and other places. Enhanced Israel is reputation. Then in April of 18, 60, cecily was an open revolt Garibaldi, along with his band of volunteers, numbering about a thousand, invaded the island, and by July had conquered it. From there, we headed to Naples where he took the city with little resistance. In September, following that, the Piedmontese army arrived. We're technically allies, but their relationship with the French made Garibaldi uncomfortable. He met with Victor Emmanuel. The second was to become the first king of the unified Italy since the sixth century at the meeting at 10, Giuseppe handed over the lands, he conquered this left only Rome Veneto and Trentino to be taken for the complete unification of Italy. Garibaldi was staunchly anti paypal and wanted to march on Rome, but the Italian government was opposed to that. Giuseppe was taken prisoner after being shot in the foot, but it was held in a kind of pleasant prison setting. In 18, 66, Garibaldi returned from Sarah to take on Austria again, who is engaged now in the Austral Prussian war with his hunters of the Alps, now numbering 40,000. He defeated the Austrian army as Zika. He then wanted to take Rome, but the pope was backed by strong contention of French troops. Giuseppe was shot in the leg and captured yet one more time. By 1870, the Italian army swept through Rome without Garibaldi help in his last years. He settled down and marrying his longtime girlfriend Francesca are Musina with whom he had three children suffering from arthritis in the many wounds suffered in countless battles. Giuseppe Garibaldi died on June second, 18, 82 now for the putting it into perspective segment, Doing Garibaldi his lifetime. We saw the Crimean war being fought, the Napoleonic wars, the war of 18, 12, the US civil war, and by the way, he volunteered to help the northern side in the civil war. There was the celebration of the first October fest and the words girlfriend and boyfriend first appeared in writing during his time. The name Napoleon Bonaparte instilled fear in loading as well as admiration depending on where in the world you lift. Born on August 15th, 17, 69 on the island of Corsica to ennoble standing family. His birth name was Napoleon Ne Diborno. Part Day he would change his name to the one we use today and 1796 when he was 27 years of age when Napoleon was born, the Republic of Genoa sold Corsica to the French for $40 million francs. Bonaparte was sent to France to begin his French education in 1779. Abbey on the headmaster at the school at auto set of the young boy as reported by Andrew Roberts in his book, Napoleon, a life quote, a thoughtful and gloomy character. He had no playmates and walked about by himself. He had ability and learned quickly if I scolded him, he answered in a cold almost imperious tone, sir. I know it. In April 17, 79, just four months after entering or tune and learning the French language, but pulling and entered the Royal Military School of Brianna was shut to just a few months before his 10th birthday. He was there alone not to see his father for three years. Well, not the best of the military schools in France. It was tough both physically as well as intellectually demanding at school. He excelled in mathematics. This was important in his career, as he once said, quote to be a good general, you must know mathematics. It serves to direct your thinking and a thousand circumstances. The other subject he did well in was geography, which one can see in his later years. History was another subject. Napoleon was fascinated with one of his heroes. Interestingly enough, was Charles the twelfth of Sweden, someone we met at the battle of Poltava versus midway episode. I say interestingly enough, his while he marveled at Charles's victories as a general he must've learned about is disastrous invasion of Russia, which he was to duplicate years later. Napoleon was treated as an outsider by his fellow students because of his course, it can background. He would become the first from his island to graduate from Ben and was so good that he was recommended for the prestigious a code military in Paris in 17, 81 there. The students continued to look down upon Napoleon partly because of his height, mostly because of the lower level of his nobility, and I'd like to jump in here about knowing the parts height. As a young boy, he was considered short, but when he grew up, he was actually slightly taller than the average man of the age at about five foot eight. The myth that he was only five foot two is because of the French foot being slightly longer than the British version. Still, he was somewhat sensitive about his height because of the teasing he received when he was younger, commissioned as a second lieutenant. In September 17, 85, napoleon served the French army until the start of the revolution. In 1789, he returned to Corsica becoming an ally of the islands nationalist Pasquali Paoli, but that fell apart in 1793, which forced Napoleon and his family to flee to the French mainland and 1792, Napoleon was in Paris when Louis, the 16th and Mary Marie Antoinette were captured by the French mob, the execution of Louis on January 21st 17. Ninety three was not backed by Bonaparte. He thought it was a tactical mistake. This belief is one of the reasons Paoli broke relations with Napoleon, with the Austrians impressions invading France. The young military man began to feel more and more freshmen than an Italian. By February, first France declared war in Britain, Holland, and shortly after that, Spain, Portugal, Piedmont then declared war on France. The committee of public safety was created to help defend the country. By August, the army went from 650,000 to over one point $5 million men. Napoleon was to get his first significant command here. Well, his first command wasn't successful. The mender under him mutinied. He began to see where the winds were blowing in his adopted country. It caught the eye of one of ropes, peers, brothers, which brought them into the inner circle of power. The siege of too long was weird. Napoleon showed his military brilliance and heroism and a losing cause against a far greater naval force led by the British Bonaparte fled to nice or it was said that he was placed under house arrest because of the removal and later execution of rubs pier, but that was short lived as France needed Napoleon. When royalist armies attack Paris in 1795, the new thermador Dorian leadership ordered the Corsican to defend them. Napoleon worked with Joe Kim Murat to use artillery against the 1400 surgeons, which won the day. Shortly after this, he met Josephine to Bahar ne who we would marry on March 9th, 17, 96. Morat would marry Napoleon sister, which would tie the two men together for years to come. So let's jump ahead a little bit to November ninth, 17, 99. The directory, the group France was running, was broke. There was chaos everywhere in the country was nearing disaster. It was then that Napoleon and a group of friends decided to overthrow the directory. In a coup de Gras, Napoleon was by now considered a hero in his country while the others tried to give him a minor role in the new government. This was soon to come apart. Assassination plots of boundary Napoleon's rise to power. He used them to consolidate his rule. As Madame du Ramos' sought explains in her memoirs that quote, men worn out by the turmoil of the revolution looked for the domination of enable ruler and that people believe quite sincerely that Bonaparte, whether it's council or Emperor, would exert his authority and save them from the pearls of anarchy. Napoleon held elections that would give him more and more power until he became emperor on December second 18. Oh, four. With his coronation ceremony held at Notre Dam in Paris in 18. Oh, two. The treaty was signed between the French and British, but anyone who thought that this would provide a lasting peace would be gravely mistaken with Napoleon and from control. He began to make plans to conquer Europe and create a new world order. Bonaparte said his eyes on his arch enemy, Britain. He had his mentoring day and night for the eventual invasion of Great Britain. This was not to be as by August of 18. Oh, five. He realized the French navy was no match for their British counterparts. We found that out. He changed his focus from the west to the east and the Rhine against the armies of Austria. Russia, the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily as well as Sweden, the war, the third coalition had begun without going into detail because we're going to go over a few of these battles in the battle bracket, the French with their vastly superiorly trained forces. When the war with the battle of Austerlitz being the death blow, Austria signed the treaty of Pressburger, taking them out of the war, the holy Roman Empire, which started in year 800, dissolved on August sixth, 18. Oh, six with the creation of the Confederation of the Ryan. Next step was the war of the fourth coalition where we see the entry of Prussia into the mix along with Britain, Russia, Saxony and Sweden to the ever growing ground. Army led by Napoleon. The major battles included stetten in a Lao and concluded with a battle of Friedland. Napoleon once again, prove victorious Eddie. As he would end the war of the fifth coalition were Austrian jumps back in. They too, along with their allies, would be crushed, own apart, had just one more enemy to face, and that was Russia. Now, technically they were at peace following the treaty of Tilson signed in Eighteen, oh, seven, which made Russia break off economic relations with Britain, but by 18, 11 they were breaking the treaty over and over, which was infuriating. Napoleon, so angry, he forgot the lessons he learned by studying Sweden's King Charles the twelfth, and he made plans to invade Russia. I'm going to make a small assumption here. I'll guess that since you're listening to a history podcast, you know how poorly things went from Napoleon, the grand army with their invasion of Russia, but what you might not know is that the reasons popularly given for his defeat don't tell the entire story. Much credit has been given to the Russian winter in Napoleon's defeat. What I would give far more credence to the vastness of Russia's geography. The winter was merely the coup de Gras as the friendship already pretty much lost the war by August of 18, 12, and here's my argument. The French army was already beset by food shortages. There need to forge the countryside had led them to being captured or killed by the Russian army, which wouldn't fully engaged the French and by disease, especially typhus which either killed or weakened to hundred and 10,000 men in Napoleon's army, even though the remaining men were some of the best troops in all the world at the time. The attrition would have taken them down the winter that was to come, would take care of that in the coming years, and Napoleon would retreat back to Paris, be sent into exile on Elba, come back to France for his resurgence and what was now known as the hundred days is defeated at Waterloo, which we'll cover in episode 88 when it faces off against the battle of Yorktown. It sent him to a second exile and the remote island of St Helena and finally to his death there on May fifth, 18, 21 at the age of 51. The scourge of Europe would reshape the boundaries and create new revolutionary movements such as the one that just seppe Garibaldi would undertake with of unification of Italy. Something that Napoleon would first create with his ascension as the king of Italy on March 17th, 18, oh, five. Now time for the second, putting it into perspective segment in Napoleon's last year's steam transportation became viable. Beethoven's fifth symphony is performed. We see the end of the age of enlightenment and the new Madrid earthquakes reverse the flow of the Mississippi River for awhile. Now, onto the scoring. First off, we start with the 15 points for the length of time and service to his country where people with Garibaldi, we started as time in 18, 34 ending in 18, 70, 36 years, and polling began his career in 1785 and ended in 18, 14 for 29 years. Giuseppe gets 15 points. Napoleon 13. Next step is how they affected the rest of the world and their time. Napoleon, of course, had an enormous footprint on this world with everything from the sale of the Louisiana territory to the USA, to his conquering much of Europe. I could make a case that is invasion of Russia with the troops from that country. Finally seeing what the rest of Europe look like with the seed that would lead to the Russian revolution. Garibaldi was crucial and independence movements on two continents, South America and Europe, and help create the nation of Italy, but when I look at the impact of both, I really have to go with Napoleon with 20 Garibaldi with 15. Next up is the lasting effect on history for 25 points here, yet again, the edge has to go with Napoleon wold. Garibaldi helped with two, maybe three countries coming into existence. Napoleon wiped out the holy Roman emperor and prior served as the inspiration for the unification of Italy, completely redrew alliances and borders throughout Europe, so he gets 25 with Garibaldi. 20 last up is the 40 points for how they affected their country for the better. Napoleon made France the great power in Europe as well as making them a defeated nation. He did fundamentally restructure the country and bought them out of the absolutism of the board bone dynasty, which didn't make a short lift. Comeback Garibaldi helped create a new nation, a unified Italy, which lasts until this day. For these reasons, I'm giving Garibaldi 40 to pauline getting 35, so by a very tight margin, just three points. Napoleon moves on with a score of 93. The Garibaldi is 92 face Alexander the Great and the second round. I hope you enjoyed today's podcast. Don't forget, if you want to read the script, it's available at the battleground history blog site, aptly named battleground history.com. 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