Welcome to battleground history, episode 21, Oliver Cromwell versus aristotle. Today's matchup pits a rebel versus a scholar. On the one side, we have the Englishman who many think had the most significant impact on this country, Oliver Cromwell. He faces off against the ancient Greek thinker who is considered one of the fathers of philosophy aristotle. First up is abandoned. Some historians believe had a greater impact on the history of this nation and no one has been more consistently misunderstood and misrepresented. He called himself Oliver Protector, while others called them a trader, usurper, hypocritical and cruel still. Others found him broadminded tolerant, passionately religious, and for Rosha, slowly moral April 25th, 15, 99 for years before the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth First, a boy was born to Robert and Elizabeth Cromwell of Huntington. Oliver was one of 10 children with him being the only boy to survive to adulthood. His great, great, great uncle was Thomas Cromwell, the chief minister to King Henry the eighth of England until of course he was the capitated on order of the king on July 28th, 15, 40. Considering how vital Oliver Cromwell was to become in British history, it's interesting that we know very little about the first 40 years of his life. What we do know is he attended Huntington Grammar School and Sydney Sussex College, although he did not complete his studies there and 16, 17, when cromwell was 17, he left the college as his father had passed away, leaving a widow and seven unmarried sisters. On August 27th, 16, 20, oliver married Elizabeth, who is the daughter of an influential merchant with strong connections to the puritan community. They would have nine children, five boys and four girls. Cromwell's served in parliament from 16, Twenty eight to 29 until King Charles the first dissolved it not calling it back into session until 16, 40. The new parliament was known as the long parliament and it was part of the spark that would lead to the English civil war. Cromwell's role in sparking the war is best summed up by author and Tony Have Frazier in her biography of the man when she wrote quote, if the definition of an agitator is one who moves, shakes, disturbs and excites, and Oliver Cromwell's surely acted as a political agitator and the 22 months from the inception of the long parliament to the outbreak of the civil war. It is in the English civil war. The cromwell makes his initial marks as a commander and leader. The war began on August 27, 22nd 16, 42 with the raising of King Charles. The first standards with there's royalist army against the parliamentary roundheads. It isn't the English civil war that crumbled really makes us more can British history. One thing I'd like to point out is there wasn't just one English civil war, but three, the first one from 16, 42 to 46. The second was fought between 16, 48 and 49 and these two will between the forces of King Charles, the first and the parliament. The third war fought between 16, 49 and 16 slash 50. One was between his son, Charles, the second and the supporters of the rump parliament. The first fight that Cromwell was to serve in was the battle of gainsborough fought on July 28, 16, 43 where he and Sir John Meldrum and their parliamentarians faced off against the royalists, led by Charles Kevin dish. This was a small wind for the round heads, but more importantly showed the cromwell was an effective leader. One year later on July second, 16, 44 cromwell. Now, Lieutenant General, the horse help lead his men alongside Scottish troops to a decisive victory over the royalist army, led by Prince Rupert of the Ryan. While the wind gave the parliamentarians control of the north of England, the royalists remained a powerful enemy in the south because of the lack of followup on the. When a new rearranged fighting forces created in 16, 40th five known as the new model army, the new model army created a professional officer corps along with veterans soldiers, many of whom were deeply religious puritans. The two commanders of the forces of parliament were Sir Thomas Fairfax and George Monk. With cromwell being one of the leaders of his own army, negotiations between parliament and King Charles, the first, we're at a stalemate which led to the second English civil war in 16, 48 crumb will began to use his position as a military commander to petition the people with is rousing biblical speeches and writings. He was involved and actually led the trial and execution of the King Charles. The first was beheaded on January 30th, 16, 49 by now. The remaining world is we're in Ireland, who joined up with an alliance of the Irish confederate Catholics Cromwell was sent to crush them, which he did. Many Catholics in Ireland had their properties taken from them along with a proclamation that the practice of Roman Catholicism was to be banned. Crumbles actions in Ireland are a focus of some controversy as has been pointed out that many civilians there were massacred something. Oliver himself denied to mass killings at Drug Heda and Wexford saw thousands killed. Even worse after chrome will left the new commander General Hell Henry, I've written. What about the English countryside burning crops causing a genocidal famine that was estimated to have killed about 600,000 people out of a population of one point 4 million. This is about 43 percent of the people who lived in Ireland, I mean a staggering number. That's a greater percentage than killed in the holodomor. Because of this British and Irish relations deteriorated for centuries. Winston Churchill was to comment on the Anglo Irish ties quote upon all of these Cromwell's record was a lasting bain by an uncompleted process of terror by an indigenous land settlement by the virtual prescription of the Catholic religion, by the bloody deeds already described. He cut new gulfs between the nations and the creeds hell or what were the terms you thrust upon the native inhabitants, and they, for their part across 300 years, have used their keenest expression of hatred. The curse of chrome will on you upon us. Soul. There's still lies the curse of Cromwell. Then Scotland rebuild by naming Charles. The second their king crumble will back and smash the Scots with his greatest military triumph occurring at the battle of Denver. Charles the second headed south with his army pointed at London thinking crumble was too busy in the north. Oliver moved his forces toward the royalists and at the battle of Worcester is men destroyed their foes with Charles barely escaping. Over the next few years, parliament tried to set up elections to come up with a new government, but failed. Cromwell's stepped into the vacuum when he was made Lord protector of the Common World of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. This was done through the protectorate of which Oliver Cromwell was to head. This form of government was to last from 1653 to 16. Fifty nine. Cromwell was to die on September third, 16, Fifty eight. His son Richard, was named as Lord Protector, but he was not all over the protector. It dissolved and on May 29 slash 16 slash 60 Charles. The second was named king because of Oliver Cromwell's puritanical rule. England was a gloomy place. Charles the second was anything but a puritan, as he had at least 12 illegitimate children and his court was pretty jovial. One thing the new king had done was to exude the body of Christ dwell on the twelfth anniversary, his father's execution, following that kit, Oliver's head severed, publicly displayed and his body dumped in a pit now for putting it into perspective segment. During the 16 fifties, the first US corporation is formed, the Harvard Corporation, the most massive land battle of the century. That battle of Barris, Tish Cova was fought in Ukraine. New Amsterdam is incorporated later becoming New York City. Louis, the 14th is crowned as King of France and the great fire of Miri Eki and Edo Japan kills 100,000 people. Now, we had way back in time to our next contestant, aristotle. The legacy that he left when he died in 3:22 BC was one of the greatest in the history of mankind, moaning three 84 BC, insta Gira, Chelsea in the north of France, or excuse me, north of Greece. He would be raised by guardians in his early days as his father, Nica Mockus died when he was a very young boy. Little is known about the life of aristotle except that he joined Plato's Academy in Athens around the age of 17. What we do know of him is through his extraordinary volumes of writings on a vast array of subjects. We also know that he was the tutor of Alexander the great at the behest of his father, Philip, the second of Macedonia. In my research of Aristotle, I was stunned by the amount of work this man put out. Now I have a minor in philosophy and I've studied ever startle in college, but I mean we really only have about one third of his writings available to us and so much of what we know of his ideas come from his students and their ears. One of the best books I've read in the past 10 years if the cave in the light, plato versus Aristotle and the struggle for the soul of Western civilization by Arthur Herman. If you were interested in philosophy or just the influence of these two men on history, I highly and I mean highly recommend it. Here's an excerpt about the difference between aristotle and his teacher Plato. Aristotle is no willing minded, dreamy eyed philosopher. He's the realest an empiricist compared with Plato and mystic and idealist. Aristotle believed his teachers dismissal of the material world as a realm of illusion and error was a major mistake and he devoted himself to analyzing the world and all its rich multiplicity if tells us to leave the cave in order to find a higher truth beyond the senses. Aristotle retorts don't be in such a hurry. What happens in that cave is not only important, but the only reality we can truly know the ramifications of the differences between the two men which shaped Western civilization for both good and bad. Let's go back to the author Herman describing the influences of Plato and Aristotle to get a better understanding for the next 2000 years, quote, aristotle would become the father of modern science logic in technology. Plato, by contrast is the spokesman for the theologian mystic, the poet, and the artist one gave us a view of reality is multiforme and continually evolving the other as eternal in one one told us we have to learn to deal with things as they are including each other. The other said, we need to think about how things ought to be including ourselves and our society. One shape the contours of Christianity, the other, the ideas of the enlightenment. One gave us modern economics. The other, the reformation one inspired Europe to lift itself out of the Dark Ages. The other inspired the greatest artistic works, so the renaissance, including Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling one gave us the US Constitution, the Manhattan project, and shopping malls. The other gave a sharper cathedral, but also the Gulag and the Holocaust. Aristotle asks, how do you fit into the world that already exists? Plato asks, why does that world existed at all? Now, Aristotle's abstract philosophical treaties included works on logic, metaphysics, the theory of knowledge known as Epistemology, the ideas of universals in particulars as well as the content concepts of substance and essence and natural philosophies. He gave us the beginning of physics, the five elements, emotion, astronomy, geology, biology, systematic studies, and the classification of living things. Aristotle wrote about the soul memory, dreams loan with ethics, politics and economics. His works influenced countless philosophers over the millennium. Aristotle basically founded those numerous fields of studies and I just mentioned that we still 2100 years later study in schools around the world. His influence on Christian as well as Islamic philosophers and thinkers is enormous. Much of what we know about aristotle comes from Muslim scholars and scientists. It is almost impossible to overstate the impact he made on our world, but all believed that his works were positive. Bertrand Russell said that quote, almost every serious intellectual advance had to begin with an attack on some of helion doctrine. Biologist Peter Medawar said of the Greek philosopher some strange and generally speaking, rather tiresome for Rago of hearsay. Imperfect observation, wishful thinking. Incredulity amounting to downright gullibility. Before we say goodbye to aristotle, I'd like to end with another paragraph from Herman's book, the Cave in the light quote, today's affluent, globalized material world was largely made by Aristotle's offspring and is not so different from the Athens of Socrates Day. It's a world filled with comforts and conveniences, a world of constant change in unimaginable individual freedoms, but it is also riddled with false facades and shoddy superficialities, and it is populated by institutions that have become obsessed with the process for its own sake, rather than keeping Western civilization on message regarding the larger meaning of freedom of liberty community and spiritual truth. Now we're going to actually return to this discussion of aristotle later in episode 63 when his teacher plato goes up against Nat Turner and the rebels, rogues and scholars bracket battle. Now for the scoring. First we have 15 points for the length of time each was either a rebel or scholar with Oliver Cromwell. We'll begin with his time as a member of parliament and 16, 28 until his death in 1658, which is some 30 years. Aristotle began his career as a philosopher when he was 18 or so and three 66 pc and ended when he died in 3:22, which is 44 years. The 15 points go to the Greek with the Lord protect, you're getting 12. Next, we give out 20 points for how they affected the rest of the world in their time. Cromwell actually had a robust immediate influence on global politics as the colonies in the Americas were changed because of his actions. Aristotle on the other hand, taught Alexander the Great and you know how that got turned out and this category I'm giving the Greek 20 points crumb well 18. Now we turn to the 25 points for their lasting effect on world history and here we have an absolute route. I don't think I need to recount the influence. Aristotle had the on the world cromwell's influences fleeting but substantial. The Greek gets 25, the Brit 15 now for the big price, 40 points on how they affected their country for the better. Crumble is a tough one to gauge as the aftermath of his death pretty much wiped out his influence if you at them from an Irish or Scottish point of view. He gets nothing from a British standpoint, can go either way, depending if you're a royalist or round head. With aristotle, he affected this country for the better. With his founding of so many sciences is teaching of Alexander and all of his writings. 40 points go to aristotle 20 to Cromwell. Well, apparently we have an overwhelming winner in this battle and that's the Greek philosopher aristotle, but the maximum number of points, 100 to Oliver Cromwell's, 65. Well, I hope you enjoyed today's podcast. Join us next time when we move over to the military battle bracket, we pit an ancient Chinese fade from 202 BC. The Battle of gates versus the clash between the Seljuk and the Byzantine Empire Man's occurred. Don't forget to join us on facebook as well as heading over to the blog site, battleground history.com. 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