Contingencies change behavior, reinforcers maintain or strengthen behavior.
Contingencies will include the environment, the space the dog feels is around them or not, any threats, what you are doing, what they have learned, their genetic traits, their early learning and of course …. you. All these elements can change, and because they change, the behavior changes.
In this episode, a deep discussion topic for sure, Kay Laurence of Learning About Dogs and Sue McGuire (forever the student) dive into contingencies that influence behavior.
For interesting reading here is an article "Guidance is not dependence."
Learning About Dogs: List of courses available to students both in person and online learning.