me&my health up

Unlocking the Truth about Aging: Insights and Revelations For a Healthy Life

October 17, 2023 me&my wellness / Dr. Carl Giordano Season 1 Episode 180
me&my health up
Unlocking the Truth about Aging: Insights and Revelations For a Healthy Life
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Can you truly reverse the clock on aging? What if the secrets to longevity were hidden in your daily habits? 

In this enlightening episode of "me&my health up", host Anthony Hartcher sits down with Dr. Carl Giordano, a leading expert in the field of longevity and holistic health. Together, they unravel the mysteries of aging and reveal actionable steps you can take to maintain youthful vigour and appearance. 


Aging is inevitable, but how we age is significantly within our control. Dr. Carl Giordano dives deep into the holistic approaches that can effectively reverse aging. From the surprising benefits of eating once a day to the power of specific exercises and the role of groundbreaking supplements, this episode is a treasure trove of insights.  Whether you're looking to maintain that youthful glow, boost your energy levels, or understand the cellular mechanisms behind aging, this conversation is for you. Discover the science-backed strategies to reverse aging and lead a healthier, more vibrant life. Don't just add years to your life; add life to your years! 

Tune in to unlock the secrets of reversing aging and embrace a life of vitality and wellness. 


About Dr. Carl Giordano:  

  • Dr. Carl Giordano is the Chief Science Officer and Orthopedic Spine Surgeon at Atlantic Spine Specialists.
  • He is double board certified in orthopedics and spine surgery, with education from the Hospital for Joint Diseases/NYU Langone Medical Center.
  • Dr. Giordano has held roles as the medical director at Stryker Howmedica Tissue Bank and Health South Physical Therapy.
  • He has made significant contributions through committee service for the American Board of Spine Surgery and has numerous peer-reviewed publications and book chapters.
  • Dr. Giordano is actively involved in research and holds multiple patents, and he is the founder of Educated Life Choices, LLC, dedicated to providing health and longevity information to the public.

How to reach Dr. Carl Giordano: 

About me&my health up & Anthony Hartcher 

me&my health up seeks to enhance and enlighten the well-being of others. Host Anthony Hartcher is the CEO of me&my health up which provides holistic health solutions using food as medicine, combined with a holistic, balanced, lifestyle approach. Anthony holds three bachelor's degrees in Complementary Medicine; Nutrition and Dietetic Medicine; and Chemical Engineering.

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Any information, advice, opinions or statements within it do not constitute medical, health care or other professional advice, and are provided for general information purposes only. All care is taken in the preparation of the information in this Podcast. [Connected Wellness Pty Ltd] operating under the brand of “me&my health up” here for more

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I will use the word anti aging or reverse aging, I think we lose people because they feel like it's science fiction but it's anything but science fiction. So I'm tending to use the phrase decelerate the aging process rather than reverse aging, even though the things we're going to talk about can absolutely reversed certain aspects of aging. But that's that's kind of the understanding of what aging is today. That was Dr. Carl Giordano, he is a leading expert in longevity, and he is joining us today on the me&my health up I'm doing great. How are you? podcast. I'm your host, Anthony Hartcher. I'm a clinical nutritionist and lifestyle medicines specialist. The purpose of this podcast is to enhance and enlighten your well being. And today we'll be doing that on longevity and what you can do from a diet, exercise and supplementation point of view to reverse aging. So a bit about Dr. Carl, so Dr. Carl is a double board certified orthopedic and spinal surgeon. He has published 11 publications that have been peer reviewed. And he's also an author of a leading book. He's also been labeled the top Doctor through a magazine, the top surgeon, he is an expert in this area of longevity, he is conducting his own research in this area through the Rockefeller University. And I really enjoyed this conversation because Dr. Karl is so down to earth and he explains longevity in a simple way we get dig deep down into the signal molecules and how you can help reverse aging by helping your cells maintain their identity so they don't lose their identity and mutate and you wither away and deteriorate. So join me for this empowering episode with Dr. Carl on me&my health up. Welcome on Fantastic. So really grateful to have you on the show. You're the me&my health up podcast, Dr. Carl Giordano, how are you? obviously an expert in your field, and the listeners will really like to hear what you have to say around anti aging. So really keen to dig deep into the anti aging. You've got so many credentials, double board certified in orthopedics and spinal surgery. You've published many publications, according to your bio 11. And you've written a book on shooting to the moon. And that was around your medical journey in medical school. Yes, yes. So I'm really keen for you to share with the listeners how you've arrived at what you're doing today. Sure. It is somewhat of a roundabout pathway. No, my background, as you said, is a medical physician. I practice orthopedic spine surgery. But my background before medical school was a little bit more science oriented than most physicians, majored in chemistry, spent some time at the NIH in DC and in America, spent some time at Rockefeller University working with the Nobel laureate doing a lot of genetic work. And I've never really been able to let go of my nutritional biochemistry background, you know, my metabolic biology background, which isn't really medicine today, you know, and I think there is a gap that has developed between current science and the practice of medicine. And I'm trying to bridge that gap with what we're doing now in this field of healthspan and lifespan. So part of the problem today, as a practicing physician, you know, we deal with so many patients, there are a lot of pressures, there's a lot of time restraints, and we don't really get a chance to explain to the public as a doctor patient relationship would allow us to pull up those things that are new and current about healthspan and lifespan. So this whole project of getting this information out to the public started probably five years ago, in an attempt to educate initially, a lot of my friends that I found to be very smart and successful, but just knew very little about this field. And I found it somewhat horrifying. It's such a valuable important field, it's not particularly new. The information that we're going to talk about today, some of it's hundreds of years old, some of it is 1020 years old, but no what I've come to realise is that when real good work is done in a lab, it takes a few years for it to get published, then it takes a few years for another lab to confirm it and publish it then another couple of years to get into a medical textbook and so on and so on. By the time it gets to medical school, let alone the practice of medicine, you're probably about 20 years behind so in this era of high speed information transmission. I think this information is too valuable for us to wait 20 years to get this information out into the public and that's how this whole project started years ago. I'm so glad you've come on to the me&my health up podcast to enhancing enlightened the well being of others to make sure that they get firsthand what's cutting edge in terms of the research around anti aging. So let's start with that. Let's start with what is anti aging? Yeah, well, let me even go a little bit farther back, let me just describe what aging is an aging can be different things to different people. But in its simplest form, we age because our cells in our body lose their identity. And imagine a brain cell no longer functions as a brain cell or a skin cell no longer functions as a skin cell. That is basically how you get cognitive decline. That's how you get wrinkles. That is basically the basis of how you age when your cell can no longer functions the way it should you start to age and I get it, we're talking about cells. And some people may be intimidated by the word cell, but cells make up tissues, tissues make up organs, the skin is the largest organ in your body. So we're talking about the areas in your body that everybody understands your brain, your heart, your skin, your joints, your ligaments, everything. So everybody needs to understand that the cells lose their identity when the cells lose their correct on off pattern on a genetic cellular level. So when the brain cell starts making the wrong proteins, it no longer looks like a brain cell, it starts to look like a different cell. So that is basically what aging is today. And everything we're going to talk about today is going to ask yourself the question, How am I maintaining cellular identity through the genetic mechanisms that we understand. And this includes exercise, diet, and this category of signal molecules or messenger molecules, which is the area I really want to get into with the public. But I am happy to talk about diet and exercise first and explain to the public how diet and how exercise also affect the same cellular genetic pathways. So if I can, I'll just start by describing the genetic pathways that we're talking about. There are three specific longevity gene pathways that people may have heard of. One is the sirtuins very popularised by a professor at Harvard Sinclair, who has written many articles about NAD, and NMN, and things like that, we'll get into that the second genetic pathway is the AMPK pathway. And the third genetic pathway is something called MTOR. So we want to know how diet exercise and signal molecules affect those three genetic pathways. The other four pathways are telomeres, which are the tips of your DNA to help maintain fraying of the DNA metabolic pathways to maintain your blood sugar senolytic pathways to eliminate zombie cells or cells that have lost their identity, and then the antioxidant pathways ways to get rid of the free radicals that can damage our cells or cell membranes, increased cell permeability create kind of leaky cells. So the antioxidant pathways is very important. And I know that's a mouthful, you know, but people need to understand this to the same degree that they understand the most important things in their life, whether it's a financial investment decision, or what kind of car they're going to buy these seven pathways people need to understand. And whenever they have a question where they say, Should I do this? Should I do that they need to ask themselves, am I affecting these seven pathways, and they will come to the right conclusion, if they have questions about whether they should have a high protein diet or a low protein diet, they can ask themselves, how am I affecting these pathways in a way to maintain cellular identity and decelerate the aging process? I think, you know, when we used the word anti aging, or reverse aging, I think we lose people, because they feel like it's science fiction, but it's anything but science fiction. So I'm tending to use the phrase decelerate the aging process, rather than reverse aging, even though the things we're going to talk about can absolutely reverse certain aspects of aging. But that's kind of the understanding of what aging is today. And those are the seven pathways that we need to just ask ourselves, when we get into these other topics, what do these other processes do? So if we start with diet, you know, you can ask yourself, you know, how does it affect these pathways, and you almost have to break it down into what we eat and how we eat because both of those categories have been shown to be important. Now, diet always gets into this topic of high protein, low protein keto diet, there's there's 20 different diets, there's overwhelming evidence that the plant centered diets seem to be the best. You look at all the blue zones around the world. You look at the healthiest people around the world, people that have lived the longest. They're all largely plant based. And sometimes the varying diets get criticised, but very prominent people because most of the information we have on diets is through epidemiological studies. And the problem with epidemiological studies is they're difficult to make perfect. And one of the prominent physicians that criticises some of these questions about which diet is best is his background is mathematics. He's a mathematician as well as a physician, and he doesn't lie Make the fact that we can't definitively mathematically explain why a high protein diet or a low protein diet is better, I do think with time, it's going to become very clear that a plant centered diet is the best. And it's not high protein or low protein, I think we have to get away from those terms, I think we have to say it's normal protein, we are getting the right amount of protein that our body needs, whether you should go above and beyond that into the high protein category, I think is wrong, because we know the high protein diets upregulate, the mTOR genetic pathway, which is not what we want. So the mTOR genetic pathway leads to the recycling of misfolded proteins in our cells. And if you don't recycle them, you create kind of this cellular clutter, and you make the efficiency of the cell less, and the cells start to struggle, and you promote cells losing their identity. And that is true, whether you're talking about the brain, and cognitive decline, whether you're talking about the skin and wrinkles, whether you're talking about the joints in your body, and in stiffness and arthritis, it is the same explanation, regardless of what cell type you're talking about in your body. So I think my message to the listeners with regards to diet in this category of longevity and health span, if you want to check off every box and do everything right, based upon the information that we have, you want to have a largely plant based diet, which is in itself normal protein and high complex carbohydrates. The context carbohydrates do not spike your blood sugar and helps another one of those genetic pathways, which is maintaining relatively normal blood sugar levels and avoiding the big spikes. So I'm a big believer in plant based diets. I've been largely plant centered for a long, long time, I will never go back to being otherwise. And I think there's an overwhelming evidence that it's probably the best diets not only for the human buyer, but but also for the planet. The second part of the diet is how we eat, they probably have heard a lot about intermittent fasting. And there's a lot of science that indicates intermittent fasting probably is very beneficial. It also seems to promote some of these genetic pathways. Again, by maintaining the metabolic pathways of sugar, other metabolic pathways are benefited by probably intermittent fasting or eating once a day. And I know it kind of is awkward people, it's social to go out for lunch, it's social to eat breakfast, you know, with your family on weekends, but you do get used to it. And there does seem to be a lot of science that indicates intermittent fasting is beneficial. When you look at certain small mammals or mice studies, and you treat them with intermittent fasting. There's a lot of information that indicates they live longer, and they live healthier. Again, from a mathematical perspective. Some people will criticise those studies, but I don't think there's any question that intimate fasting is probably beneficial. And if you have to err on which side you want to be we know it's not harmful. So I would recommend that people reconsider their diets from a plant based diet as well as intermittent fasting as best they can. So if I get off the diet topic now and I get into the exercise topic, again, like you say yourself, well, what is it do on on those seven pathways that we talked about? Well, we know that exercise will promote maintaining the length of your telomeres we know exercise promotes DNA repair. We know exercise promotes antioxidant defense against oxidative stress. We know exercise reduces inflammation, we know exercise improves the immune function. We know exercise improves metabolic health, mitochondrial biogenesis. So we know on a sailor genetic level exercise is not just something we do because we've heard it to tell but we know on a sailor genetic level what exercise does we also know that exercise is important because we lose a certain amount of strength. We'll be back after a quick break. Hey, quick question for you. Are you someone who wants to be fit healthy and happy? And what if I told you you could get your dream body by simply just listening to a podcast? I'm Josh and I'm Kg and we're the host of the fit healthy and happy podcast. Listen, we get it fitness isn't easy carbs, no carbs. Just stop! Okay, it doesn't have to be that complicated. And that's why we made this podcast we get straight to the facts so you can become your best you. So the way to check us out is click the link in the show notes or search fit healthy and happy podcasts on any of the major podcast platforms. We'll see you soon. over a certain age, people will hear the words like three to 8% of muscle mass per decade over age 30. We know that our VO2 max diminishes as we get older we know that our balance deteriorates as we get older and we know we get stiff as we get older. So exercise works on a cellular genetic level. We know we've been able to document it and I think you have to check off in the category of exercising four boxes, strength training, aerobic conditioning, balance function and stretching. You can't just pick one anymore you can You can't just walk for exercise, you can't just jog or bike for exercise, you've got to check off all those boxes, people have probably heard the phrase virtue grow stronger from the wound. I mean, that basically is highlighting the idea that exercise is a form of adversity. And when you can subject yourself to adversity, as long as it doesn't hurt your body, you'll basically make yourself stronger on a cellular level. So exercise has a lot of cellular benefits, it's no longer just some vague idea that we should eat right, don't smoke and exercise, I think we're much more sophisticated in our understanding of what diet does and what exercise does. And I want people that understand that this is all based in a lot of science, and they've got to take it to heart and not just, you know, assume that they're one of the lucky ones live with this thing we call the optimism bias, that'll never happen to them. They've got grandparents with great genes, you know, my response to that is always your grandparents grew up in a different environment, stronger ozone layer, less micro plastics, in the environment, less pollutants, food base was very different. So they have to understand that today, we believe that probably 20% of your life is related to the genes you got from your parents, and 80% is related to how you influence your genes throughout your life. So I know, you know, that's a mouthful in terms of diet and exercise, but I wanted to get through that. So we could spend a little bit more time on the new field, which is referred to as signal molecules or messenger molecules, because that's probably the one area that people probably haven't heard of. But before I get to that you have any questions about those two? What did you think about that little summation? Oh, fantastic summary, you summarised it really well understandable. And so I have got some questions. And in particular, in relation to protein you mentioned, like the Goldilocks principle, not too much, not too little, just right. So what is that just right now, the listeners are probably thinking, Well, I don't really, you know, I want to eat just right. But what is it? Yeah, and look, nobody really knows, you will get different numbers of how many grams per kilogram of body weight that you need. I think what we're trying to get across to the listener is that the big protein spiked meals, the big cowboy steaks, the big, you know, fish meals, those are the things we're trying to get away from, you know, you want to fill yourself and I think people will find that, you know, a plant based meal fills them up a little bit faster than a meat based meal, largely because the complex carbohydrates are digested as fast, they don't get these glucose spikes. And they'll probably, you know, feel as though they're losing weight, because they're eating less as well. But no one really has the answer to how many milligrams each individual person of that should have. Regarding proteins, I think people have to look at their bodies, see if they feel as though they're losing muscle mass. And if they are, they obviously need to have a little bit more of the protein, people will get used to seeing how their body responds, I think the first thing people will find is that if you're largely plant based, you will fairly rapidly get down to your recommended body weight, you know, 80% of Americans are considered, you know, way above their recommended body weight, you know, and it is a shame that when you get to your recommended bodyweight people seem to look at you like you're sick, because they're not used to seeing you thin. So I hate to answer that question. Because I've seen numbers that are different ends of the spectrum. I don't measure anymore, how many grams of protein I eat, I just monitor my body and I see if I feel like I'm losing muscle mass. And I do not feel like I'm losing strength or muscle mass. Okay, so best to go with strength and muscle mass as the indicator as to whether you're eating enough protein, just in terms of predominantly plant based, is that like an 8020 rule? So 80% or 20? Or is it a different 90,10? Or what is predominantly plant based? Yeah, so I mean, some people are just entirely plant based. No fish, meat, no chicken, no red meat, and you can certainly get all the protein you need with plant based meals. The idea that you have to eat red meat or chicken is just a fallacy today, yes, you might have to be a little bit more careful to make sure you get all the amino acids that you need, but they are certainly available in plant based diets. Quinoa was considered a complete protein just like meat as beans are not considered a complete protein unless you add also a grain with them. So I do eat a lot of fermented bean type foods, you know, beans, seeds, grains fermented in a non soy type template. So if I have like a tempeh burger for me, I no longer eat a hamburger, you know. So we have I have a lot of that in my diet. And I think people will need something structural I think you know, you you feel like you need to bite into something and if it's just salads and grains, it's sometimes not satisfying, but I think You know, how much of a plan face? Well, I mean, look, you do the best you can, you know, I think Sinclair at Harvard now state is entirely plant based Tom Brady, the football quarterback for the Patriots, you know, and then Tampa Bay, he's been 80% plant based 20% Food for years, he obviously didn't lose any muscle mass while playing professional football, Arnold Schwarzenegger bodybuilder, you know, basically states that he is almost entirely plant based now. So this idea that you have to have a certain percentage of your diet as meat or chicken is just wrong. And I think as more and more people come out, and indicate that they have jumped on this bandwagon, the rest of the country or the rest of the world will feel more comfortable also participating in this. And in terms of intermittent fasting, you spoke about one meal a day. So what is what have you found through your research the best form of intermittent fasting? Or does it depends like the proceed? So how do you do it? And what do you recommend around the past. So when we look at animal models, if you feed the same amount of food to an animal and break it up into do two doses, or give them all the same amount of food in one dose, the animal that eats the food once a day, lives longer and lives healthier? Now, some people will criticise those studies in saying that the mouse doesn't live as long. So it's not a good comparison to the human being. But we can explain on a cellular level on a genetic level what intermittent fasting does. So I have found if I eat once a day, I no longer crave the food, I don't lose weight, my weight has been stable for years. And, you know, although many people will say it takes about six weeks for your body to get used to eating once a day, I will tell you, it probably took about three months to get used to it. And surprisingly, you know, every now and then you still crave eating, you know, twice a day, I don't think there's any harm in doing that. I just think people need to understand what you eat is important. And how you eat, if you can eat once a day, that seemed to be important as well. And I'm trying to give the listener an idea of how can they check off every box based on the information that we have today. Not everybody can eat once a day, but your body needs a constant supply of glucose. And when you eat, everything you eat essentially is broken down into glucose. And then if you eat just once a day, your liver goes to a process called gluconeogenesis, where it starts to supply glucose by breaking down the glycogen in the liver. So you know your risk of having liver issues by eating once a day is also dramatically dropped. So eating once a day is certainly in my mind the right thing to do if you can do it, and it's not and I get it, it's not it's not terribly easy. And it's not terribly social, when people are going out to lunch, and you're going out to dinner look. And I will tell you, I'm not a complete fanatic about it. If I go out to dinner, I'll eat whatever is on the menu, I'm not going to ruin everybody's meal by saying there's nothing on the menu that I like. But we have, you know, certainly transitioned to eating more at home unless outdoors. But you know, we do the best we can I think people need to be armed with the information. And they will have to choose how they want to live and how much of this they want to participate in. Yeah, not really important. So thanks for sharing that. Dr. Carl, in terms of the timing, when you have that one meal, when do you recommend is the best time of the data had that So for me, I have kind of gotten into a groove of eating around one meal. four o'clock, five o'clock, maybe six o'clock, I will tell you, once you get used to it, I could probably eat at seven o'clock and not crave it too much. I mean, I want to eat with the family, I'm not sure my kids are going to be doing what I do. And if I eat too early, I won't be eating with them. So I'll adjust to them. But I think everybody has to pick that time based upon their own body metabolism as to what works for them. And I also recognise like, if you're playing a sport, you might need to eat twice a day, you know, if you have other energy needs, you may need to eat a little bit more than that I found recently like if I'm going to play golf, and I'm walking 18 holes, and it's hot, I'll feel like a little fatigued. So I will eat something, not a big meal. But something but I look, I think the point is you do the best you can and no one will be perfect with this nor do I think you need to be perfect with this. I think the body is fairly resilient and the body will you know adapt as best as you can. But if we can at least prompt it in the right direction based upon what we know on the cellular mechanisms. I think that's the goal. And I'm getting to that question, Dr. Carl in terms of the next one was around exercise. You mentioned the four types of exercise and we need to be doing those four types of exercise. Is there a particular split that you found that gives better benefits? Or is it depend on the person? Yeah, I look I think when it comes to exercise, people need to understand you got to check off all four boxes and I try and do it every day. I get on the treadmill every day. I run two miles every day and I think that's what I do for my my aerobic conditioning and that That's a good physiologic exercise I found for me, it's more exercise than biking. But if you want to bike if you want, but I think you've got to bike hard, you know, you've got to have a constant high, you know, aerobic demand, when you're biking or you're on an, you know, Oregon, you're rowing or you're running, you've got to do something really aerobic. I also will do the strength training, I don't miss it almost every day, I will do some form of strength training with weights and squats, I'll work my arms, I'll work my legs. Every day, I work on balance, I watch all the professional athletes. And if you're a golfer, you see all of these guys doing single leg stance dipping down on one leg, they're working on their balance, they can almost replicate the entire golf swing on one leg. And those are things that we all need to do. People need to realise that we are balanced function deteriorates with age, there's a lot of other articles and publications that people break their hip as they get older, because they forget how to fall, they lose their balance, they become uncoordinated. So people need to jump on that bandwagon and work on their balance. If they want to do everything right, based upon the information that we have. And stretching, you can't ignore the structure and you got to get on the floor, you've got to do all your poses. It doesn't take long, everything I'm just describing, I will do in probably 35 minutes today, it doesn't take that long, you know, so I don't think you can pick and choose them anymore. Today, there's so much information that's valuable. That indicates these are things we have to do we know there are so many metabolic and cellular benefits to doing it this way. So a little bit of ache every day is what you recommend. Yeah, it becomes it becomes easy after a while. And I think people may have to start slow, and they will build themselves up and get themselves back to the way they were when they were in your late 20s. And that's the goal to prolong your life at that level for as long as you can. And I don't care what age people start, it's been shown that at any age, if you check off all these boxes, you will indeed benefit now that I see patients that unfortunately have a lot of medical issues, especially with Pedic issues. And it's a shame because when there's actual deformation of the joints or the spine, or deterioration to that degree, sometimes it is very difficult. And I think people need to understand they need to start this at a young enough age, so that they don't get to that end stage. People also need to understand that we are considered to start aging probably in our late 20s. That's when we start to age. So at what point do we start doing all this? The sooner the better? Fantastic now on the private subjects signal molecules. Tell us about them. So basically, no signal molecules is a category that's not new. It's been out there for probably 20 years. And the people that have done all the basic research have done so over the course of years. And I think people need to understand that this field has been very incremental, you know, people handed off their information to the next scientists to the next scientists and next scientists and that we've gotten to where we are now. So I don't think anybody really can claim to own this information. And what I want people to understand is, if you break down health into the individual components of cellular health, you can start to understand what you need to do on on an incremental benefit basis to nudge yourselves in the right direction, to decelerate aging and promote healthspan. And look, before we even get into the individual molecules, I get it, we're talking about small minor tweaks and changes where they feel relatively insignificant at the time. But what people need to understand is, over time, they make a difference. It's this type of incremental gain throughout life where all of the benefits are really going to be seen. And the hard part is it's hard to measure. So people feel like you know, I don't feel any difference. I'm not sure I'm going to continue with us. And that's the wrong idea that gets us into that category called the optimism bias, you know, I'm going to be okay doesn't happen to me, I can't measure the benefits. So I'm going to go along with smoking or drinking or I'll exercise and a few years I won't start now. So you know, we put together we found the top five molecules that have almost hundreds of articles published on each of them, some of them date back to usage over 1000 years, we combined them all into one tablet. Now you have to take six tablets a day because you need a certain milligram dose of each of these to see the benefits that we're looking at. And the dosages are fairly well described in the literature as to how much of it you need. Some of them are not as absorbed as we would like, but I'll go through them one by one. So one, the first one that we'll talk about is called Berberine. Berberine is a hypoglycemic people hear a lot today about hyperglycemia weight reduction, things like that. And although there's a vanity side to that, I want everybody to understand there's an actual health benefit to that. There's a study going on at Mount Sinai, I'm sorry, Einstein in in New York today in medical school called the team study, where they're looking at hypoglycemics to extend life and decrease, or at least maintain cellular function to decrease the whole aging process. So Berberine works not only on that metabolic pathway of maintaining blood sugar, it also activates the sirtuins it activates AMPK, it down regulates mTOR, which is exactly what we want. It's also an anti inflammatory and an antioxidant. So a lot of benefits to taking Berberine on a daily basis, I don't think there's any reason for people to avoid it. The second one is resveratrol, which people may have heard of resveratrol is that one molecule that's found in red wine that's felt to be associated with why the French population have this paradoxical longer lifespan despite a diet that's high in fat, and despite a high smoking history, but resveratrol at certain doses, has been shown to be a very potent sirtuin activator, a very potent a AMPK activator, a very potent down regulator of mTOR. Again, it also maintains blood sugar. And again, it's also a very powerful anti oxidant and anti inflammatory. So again, we're checking off all the boxes and those seven pathways as best we can. The third molecule is called quercetin course, it's an also very potent sirtuin activator. Now, quercetin also gets you into that senolytic pathway, it helps to eliminate those zombie like cells or cells that have already lost their identity. And the benefits, of course attend are found to be most effective when the senolytics cells are just starting to accumulate. So you don't want to wait until you're old and wrinkly. You want to get on to these while you're you know, relatively young, nobody really knows what age you should start, but we all recognise now probably sooner is better than later. Quercetin is also an antioxidant and anti inflammatory. So again, we've checked off a number of boxes on our seven pathways. The next one is an AMN, which is very popular today, again, popularised by Sinclair at Harvard because it is again a very potent sir to an activator. And that sirtuin pathway is key because there's sirtuins increase your NAD levels, and our NAD levels drop, almost 50% As we get older, and the NAD level is important to maintaining Sayler identity, as well as maintaining our cellular repair mechanisms at the level of the DNA. So we always have error rates in our DNA. And we have a repair mechanism built into every cell in our body. And when the error rate starts to exceed the repair rate, you start to age you start to lose cellular identity. So I'm a big believer that AMN is a very important component to this. The fifth component of the signal molecule category is Astragalus. It works to help maintain the length of your telomeres. So Ostrogoths has been shown to stimulate an enzyme called polymerase that helps maintain the length of the tips of your DNA called the telomere that helps the DNA from being recognised as a damaged piece of DNA. So those are the categories that we want to check off, I don't think people should pick and choose one, you can't just pick and choose and a man, you can't just pick and choose resveratrol, you can't just pick and choose Berberine, you want to check off all of these. That's what science is telling us to do in the category of the signal molecules. So it's a lot of information I know. But that's the field that interests me the most, especially since I enjoy the field of nutritional biochemistry and more of a mechanistic biology approach to medicine rather than just the traditional form of medicine. And I think this information will become standard medical information in 20 years, but I think it's too valuable for is not to be introduced now. And that's why we put a website together to explain all this. And the product actually was a late addition to the website, because we realised it's a little hard to get all of these components at the right doses. And I will tell the listeners that almost all of these are fat soluble, if you take these with a glass of water, you're probably not going to absorb you have to take these with the fatty substance food, olive oil or yogurt. Just like Vitamin D is fat soluble. If you're taking vitamin D with water, you're probably not absorbing it. So that's where we are today with the science of today. And I think that brings up the listeners up to date with regards to diet with regards to signal molecules with regards to exercise and your formula in terms of obviously you have all these ingredients in the in a single capsule or a couple of capsules. So you've worked out what's optimal in terms of what the signal molecule needs in terms of staying, you know, maintaining it to identity. Yeah, yeah. And look, I think as time goes on, we may tweak this as more publications and science comes out with people, people may look at our formula and say, well, that's a high dose 1000 milligrams of quesiton, for 1500 milligrams of Astragalus. What they don't realise is under dosing is basically like no dose at all. Some of these are not fully absorbed, and you need a certain dose, you can get enough of this in your blood. Some people may say, Well, we know this component is not absorbed to a great degree. That's true, but it is metabolised and the metabolites are absorbed. And we know that the benefits are there through the metabolites. So when people say, Oh, that's not absorbed, that's that's old information, we've gotten past that, we understand that some of these are not absorbed to a great degree, but the metabolites are absorbed, and the benefits have come through the metabolites. But yeah, you need a certain dosage. And there are a lot of publications that indicate what that dose should be. And you know, the the number of tablets today, to get all of this in your system tends to be about six tablets a day. And I take them either all at once in the morning, if I know my day is busy, or I will take three in the morning and three in the evening. And in the morning, I'll honestly take it with a little olive oil or yogurt, you know, your listeners may have heard that Starbucks is coming out with a coffee drink that they call early on. So it sounds like Schultz went to Sicily and saw that they serve olive oil in the coffee. And he is now coming out with that drink at Starbucks. So I actually put a little olive oil in my coffee, whip it up with my little whisker whisperer. And, you know, it's gets emulsified, and I take my tablets that way, but I don't really eat breakfast. So that's where I got my tablets in the morning. I was gonna ask that you because eventually you're having the tablets in the morning, and then you know, saying that you need to have them with something fat soluble? And your answer that question. So thank you. Yeah, appreciate. So how can the listeners best connect with you? How can they find your products, please share. So I have a website called REBESANA. And on that website, there's a resource section that's just full of articles about each of these individual components and what the signal molecules do on a genetic level. So if they go to grab a sauna, and then go to that resource section, they get a lot of information. There's also a bibliography that has about 150 scientific articles that have been published by scientists around the world that I think they'll find very useful if they really want to get into the science. That's probably the best way. There's also a contact me section on the website, I get about 20 questions, email the day, and I still enjoy answering them. I will tell you in America, most of those questions come from California, the West Coast like think they're a little bit more ahead of the East Coast in terms of being interested in this topic. But that's probably the easiest way to get in touch with me and to learn more about my product. Fantastic. I really appreciate you coming on Dr. Carl and sharing your insight with the listeners well ahead of it being you know, well adverse into the medical system. So it's great that you're giving them a heads up as to what they can do rather than wait 20 years. 20 years. 20 years of aging, right? Yeah. Yeah, I think they have to understand that every day makes a difference. And at any age, you can benefit from this. It's not random. There's a reason why we see so many, you know, issues out there today with regards to health. And I think people need to understand that they are nudging their bodies in one way or another. And I would hope as a physician, they would learn to nudge them in the right direction. Fantastic. Thanks for those concluding words. And also, thank you so much for covering off that. It's something that's hard to measure. And, you know, you might not notice a physical difference from day to day, but in 10 years, 20 years, that's when you're really going to notice a difference from you know, looking after your body in terms of anti aging and doing all these great things you mentioned around diet, exercise and supplements. So I really appreciate your time, Dr. Carl, it was very insightful and I'm sure the listeners got some great insight Right, I appreciate it and I hope that they find it valuable and I appreciate your platform because this is a very important valuable platform for the listeners to get a chance to hear this type of information. Thank you so much. Thank you.

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