Agile-Lean Ireland (ALI) Podcast

The effects of the shift to hybrid work with Dr. Tatiana Andreeva - Agile-Lean Ireland

April 25, 2023 Agile-Lean Ireland Episode 18
Agile-Lean Ireland (ALI) Podcast
The effects of the shift to hybrid work with Dr. Tatiana Andreeva - Agile-Lean Ireland
Show Notes Transcript

The effects of the shift to hybrid work

Enabled by new technologies and informed by the experiences during COVID pandemic, many employees would like to continue working remotely. Many companies, on the contrary, would like to see their employees back to the office. In this context, hybrid work is often proposed as a solution that meets the interests of both employees and employers and captures the benefits of both remote and in-office work. But is it indeed “the best of both worlds”?

In this talk, Dr. Andreeva (Maynooth University School of Business) will discuss her ongoing research on the effects of the mass-scale shift to hybrid work. For example, what happens in a team, when some of your team members work mostly from the office, while others work mostly from home? How do work arrangements of the employees – in the office, hybrid or remote - influence their experiences at work and their performance? How do organisations manage the shift to hybrid work? The talk will explore the emerging evidence on these issues and discuss implications for individual employees and organisations.

The Speaker
Dr. Tatiana Andreeva is an Associate Professor in Management and Organisational Behavior and Research Director at the School of Business, Maynooth University, Ireland. Her ongoing research projects explore how the shift to remote and hybrid work influences knowledge sharing and collaboration in organisations – what challenges companies face and how to address them. Tatiana’s work has been published in leading international academic journals such as Human Resource Management Journal, Human Resource Management and Journal of World Business, amongst others, as well as in the business media outlets. Prior to joining academia, Tatiana worked in management consulting and in HR.

Her notes are here:

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Thank you very much for inviting me for for talk. And I'm very excited to share with you the insights from my own going to be short. And I also wanted to say bad when I'm talking and the slides on, I don't see you. So if you want to signal something to me, just please feel free to intervene in the middle. Thank you. Okay. So, my talk today will be about the effects of the shift to hybrid work. First of all, I wanted to explain why I'm interested to explore hybrid work. And, as you probably have seen in the media, they are talking now a lot about hybrid work, they call it a new normal, or a new way of working, that will be with us for the future. And you probably have, you know, ATF following this media, Chad, you probably following DOD, it is often positioned either as a compromise because of the committee in place want to stay at home, or work from wherever it works best for them. And employers want to bring people to the office or hybrid work seems to be like middle point where different interests can meet. But some people also are doing that it actually the best of the two worlds, the world of remote work and the world of office work. So either been a compromise or being something that really should be using going forward as the best thing. This is how high blood work is discussed. Like now. And then yeah. And I pick here on this large, just as He you had wines from, you know, Business Media, Harvard Business Review, Forbes, you could see, you know, everybody's talking about hybrid work. But what I found interesting is that the opinions I actually very often polar, you know, some are saying that, you know, the best ways, and it will have to stay, I'll just say that it and it's a recipe for disaster. And what is even more interesting, if you look carefully, what reasons people are given what they are discussing either hybrid work as a disaster or hybrid war, because then best way forward, then very often, the arguments used are the same. For example, people who say that hybrid work is beneficial, playing that agent, praises employee performance, because people are not commuting, they are saving time and invest in the based on and they work. And also that hybrid work increases diversity and inclusion in the workplace, because now people now can access workplace. But the same issues are discussed when you're talking about the challenges of hybrid work, because for example, there are people who are sceptical about the effects of hybrid work on performance, and who's saying that it may actually worsen the situation with diversity and inclusion. So I found it very interesting that there are a lot of these ideas. But they're talking about the same things from opposite angles. And what is also very important to know, when you're reading all this media, that in most of the cases this opinion, and I don't want to discard them opinions might be relevant and useful, but very often behind this argument, it just, if we speak scientifically, it's somebody's hide parts of this they think it will be this way. But other than that could actually help us to understand what exactly is happening and where it is fairly limited. And this is why I was very curious to get some evidence on the standard, what is actually happening in real life organisations. What are the legal aspects of how they work? And before I go any further, I think it would be really important to define what high blood work mean. And typically, in all of this media discussions by hybrid work, they mean that an individual say Tatiana can work in a mixed format, so spend some days in northeast and South days working from another location not in office. So, eight is typically seen from an individual perspective, then that an individual combines the actual, I will I will explain a little bit later in the talk why I think it is really important to know what we mean by hybrid work, and whether this is done them union, eight could have done so Would they say the it results if you didn't, if we did find hybrid work like this done, what we actually need to acknowledge that even though that even though hybrid workers now discuss this in each new, you know, new normal and stuff like this, it is actually not really new. A inner Sansad we have research and remote work funded the different labels, virtual word distributive work to the work telecommuting, this research has been here since the late 90s. There is a lot of work done in this area. And in most cases, the individuals will come this researcher studied, they barely rarely worked only remotely very often they these combined in a working remotely with work in a NOAA office. And in this research stream, they didn't they just use a different term. They didn't call it hybrid work. They called it intensity of remote work. But essentially, it was the same idea that from this, this fact that we actually already know a lot so we shouldn't be putting opinions, we can go back to the literature and check what do we know. That said, there is of course, some bad tweet. And the bots are that they might work before Khalid was very often limited to specific sectors of industry or to specific jobs, like software development, for example, where people could easily work remotely. And now they see things used in a much bigger variety of jobs. And then there's another aspect of matter is that previously, very often be told had to earn the right to work remotely, it means that you were allowed to work remotely, partially or fully. If your employer and your managers believe that you are a good performer, you are Trosset employee, and you will do well. This means that in the pastor search when we see for example, results, findings, that intensity of remote work positive things and just performance we can add made it very difficult to say what was the reason? And what was the consequence? What is in place working so well, because they worked remotely? Or were they allowed to work remotely because they already were high people. So from this perspective, on the one hand, we already know a lot, and we shouldn't be scouting these but I'm done at hand, you know that we need to treat with some grain of salt. What are you wondering okay, now. So with this, at the background, I have launched to you we made it project that I'm currently working on. And I will share with you some insights from each of them. What I wanted to do is look at this thing long enough from different perspective. On the one hand to look at it from an employee perspective, how an individual that works in a hybrid mode perceives the situation how they feel about it, what are they experienced. On the other hand, I was interested to see what happens the not a single individual goes hybrid, but the whole organisation goes hybrid, how it influences employee behaviours, if everybody is going to hybrid. And finally, I wanted to look at the employer perspective. And I understand why we see such a heavy push right now for more organisations, to bring people to the office and hand introduced hybrid as a kind of compromise solution. Why they do this and how they manage it. So in the following few minutes, I will give you some snippets of each of the projects that look at first guy. So in in the first project that focused on employee experiences and perspectives. We did a three way survey of English in UK across different industry sectors in full based full time employment. And as you can see the data the data collection war, still you read COVID But beaten between the waves that were roughly six months in between situations were changing, you know, some people were were able to get back to the office if they wanted. And some people were not and doing this designing the survey when made sure that even you know enough Dober 2020 When the restriction is or at a strongest we we still had In the poll, who worked in the office all the time, or from time to time, because there was still some industries jobs that needed to be present. So we have a good variety of different work arrangements and in the survey. So some of the important ideas that I wanted to share with you from this research is first of all, this question is hybrid for good or bad for performance. In this study, the performance was assailed, evaluated by the respondents themselves. Dow for the past performance, we actually didn't find any differences in responses, how people self evaluated, they test each one. The only thing and this is something that we are currently exploring with the date, I don't have a definite answer. If we start accounting for the type of job, that might be very slight decrease, moving to fully remote, but I'm cautious to make a definite conclusion here. But at least on the surface, if you're just without considering any additional factors, consider our three groups separately, there are no differences in how they felt about the task performance. But what was interesting, we also asked people to self evaluate their creativity. And on this side, we did find differences in that people who worked in a hybrid mode, percent perceive themselves being the most creative. And, but what I thought was really interesting is that when further and digging into what are the people experiencing, and do this and we have some interesting findings that I think have important management applic implications. So first of all, people who worked in hire prayed, and people who work in fully remote irrespectively whether they have been always fully remote, or they were in the office before COVID and had to move to fully remote only after COVID All of these groups compared to people who were still coming back to the office, they felt lower task visibility, that is the base immediate supervisor, they felt was less aware of how much they have done on daily basis, what are they achievement, you know, how much of what they have put in, in and things like this. So, for me, this is a very interesting sign very clear sign that the moment people move out of their immediate side of managers, line managers are having trouble having difficulties to understand what the employees are doing. And this may have some implications, for example, for test performance. And in addition to these people who worked in hybrid mode, and people who worked in fully remote, but only during COVID, that is before COVID, they still had some in office hours, these groups experienced iron role overload and higher role conflict, which means that they expected they felt that the expectations of how much they could do and what they can do, war, excessive and nothing unreasonable, and that they often received conflicting demands, from different members in the organisation are on what they can do. So from this perspective, it is actually I think, an important sign that for example, employees may feel more stressed, more burnout, and more anxiety. And all of these different faculty I've had that may eventually lead to higher turnover, if based on not managed properly, for example, if line managers are not trained or not prepared to work now to change the practices when the employees in between go hybrid and follow me now. So in another study, as I mentioned, we looked at the organisational perspective, what happened to employee behaviours when the whole organisation went hybrid. And here were very lucky to partner with a one company software software development company in Latin America, which is one of the leading companies in the sector, and they often dubbed in Latin America's Latin American Google. So even though it's a software development sector, before pandemic, they were mostly working in office, very few people were remote and then planned. EMIC forced them to move fully remote. And after that, so we did a longitudinal study with them, and surveying all of the employees at two times. First, when they were fully remote, and then after a while, where the restrictions were released organisation decided that they will allow employees to work the way they want. And actually on that next slide, I have visualised This is that at time one, mostly the organisation was fully remote, very few people were hybrid, the ones that really needed to come to the office to take care of the, you know, equipment and hardware there. And then a time to, because they allowed people to choose. different individuals make different decisions, some people decided they are fully back in the office, some people decided to remain fully remote, and the majority of the individuals decided that they got to work in a hybrid mode. So while different individuals had different work arrangements at time to in this organisation, the overall organisation became hybrid, because within one team, different individuals could have a different work arrange. So again, we asked about task performance and creativity. But this time, because we had access to the whole organisation, we actually asked immediate line managers to evaluate performance of the increase, taking into account the sample size, I am cautious, again, to make a definite conclusion about the trends of BOD we did see a slight decrease from time one to time two in manager evaluations in of both task performance and creativity. And for people who were, the more remote increase were kind of the higher was the decrease. But the most interesting element of this study is that we did there what is called a network analysis, that is we asked every individual in this organisation to tell us to whom they are going for advice. One, they have a work related problem, you know, you stumble upon something that you don't know how to solve, who do you talk to, at work? To solve this, so, you know, individuals were able to pick specific other people, you know, tachyonic would say I talk to Anthony, and to Mary and to John. So we did this twice at the Taiwan and at the time, too. And then we build what is called a network. So we were able to create a map of all of the connections between different individual individuals in our organisation. And as you can imagine, some of these connections are driven by the existing organisational structure because for example, if you're my boss, it is very likely that I got to go for advice to my boss for a problem that I cannot solve, right? But there are also formal connections, you know, it just a friend, we have lunch together, we know each other, even your, you know, I'm not formally linked, anyhow to you, I still reach to you for advice, style. In these graphs, these different types of connections are denoted by different colour. And what you can see if I skipped right now, all complicated statistics, I think the picture says, says it's all that when organisation moved into a fully hybrid mode, the density of the network has significantly decreased because you can see that the picture on the right bottom corner at the time two is much less dense. And this was a totally unexpected finding for us, because we saw it, you know, people might have difficulties connecting to each other when they are all fully removed. But the more people are in the office, the easier they didn't find to connect to each other. But we actually found it differently. So all findings suggest that employees tend to ask for advice, mainly from those who are in the same work arrangement. So if I work in hybrid mode, and you work in hybrid mode, there is a high chance that we talk to each other informally asking each other for advice. And people who worked in hybrid war are the ones in our sample who were most active in asking for advice from new people. Because we're able to compare time one to time two So they were most active to connecting to someone to come, they didn't talk one time one, but now they even speak into this people attend. And but what I thought was the most interesting finding is that what ultimately predicted this informal connection and collaboration whilst was not the work arrangement of an individual per se, but what really matters more is, what is the difference between my work management and your work arrangement. So a time one imagine both of us worked in a fully remote mode, there isn't by quality, but a time to come, I decided that I stay remote, and you decided you go back to the office. So our defence increased. And there might be some other colleague who, you know, decided also to stay remotely, there are bad higher chances that I keep talking to an employee to a colleague who remained in the same mode as I do, compared to my chances of talking to an employee who moved to a different mould. So what we found is, when there's differences in the work environment changed to become more different, people were more likely not to ask for advice from each other anymore, even if we spoke before. And we will less likely to start talking, asking for advice from individuals who were in a different work arrangement. And this was really predicting the employee behaviours beyond the the individual worker. And so from this perspective, one of the main messages from me from from this study is that, remember, I started my presentation was definition of a hybrid work. And then we look at it mainly from an individual perspective, I do suggest that we need to distinguish between this individual perspective and organisation wide pro stack, talking about hybrid workplace or hybrid teams, where within the team, the same team or within the same organisation, people would have a mix of different arrangements, and was really important when we're talking about hybrid workplace. That could, it doesn't mean that everybody works as individuals in a high in a hybrid mode, it means I can be traditional in the office work around. But if one of my teammates is working hybrid, and another one is working in a fully remote, we all three together make a hybrid team, because we have a difference in our work arrangement. And that this study that I just shared with you demonstrate that the shift to a hybrid workplace is more than the shift to hybrid work by individuals, there are more aspects that we need to be aware of. And finally, now I'm moving to the third study, which looked at the employee employer perspective. This was an exploratory study trying to understand you know, what organisations are doing right now? Why how. And so in this study, we use the combination of two methods. On the one hand, I did a systematic review of the past literature, as I mentioned to you, you know, we actually know what or not name was focusing on meta analysis and systematic reviews, because they already summarise, you know, the body of research, and then I looked at the recent empirical evidence that is currently emerging. And we contrast this with the interviews that we did was top managers, senior HR leaders in different organisations. So I know this is probably not the fully representative sample, but in combination are contrasting with a literature review. I think it still gets an interesting insight and what is going on. And what is also important, I think, to consider in interpreting the findings that I'm gonna share with you in a minute, is that everybody who we interviewed work, large global companies, multinationals was distributed operations that existed pre COVID. So we actually expected that for all of these employers, you know, managing hybrid where the hybrid work wouldn't be an issue because essentially, this was an element may be not as pronounced as now, but it was an element of the regular day to day work even before COVID You know, they had somebody in Spain in the states and Then Ireland, working together because they had distributed operation and still, you know, managing a remote team. And also actually out of the 12 into us 11, we're from what you would call mostly Tiller workable structures, because this will mainly either tech companies or professional service companies will different type of kinds of services that are totally workable. And then, as a kind of old guy, one of the interviews was from a manufacturing company. And we expected to see a huge difference. Because about 70% of the employees have to come to the not to the office to the workplace, because, you know, there is assembly line or manufacturing facilities that people physically need to be present. And about 30% of the employees are in the jobs that are potentially Tiller work. And what was really surprising that, in terms of the insights and opinions, this company was not an outlier at all, everything that we discussed with HR manager was very much in line with what divers was saying. So now when you know the context of how to interpret this, let's go into the insights from this topic. So first of all, all of these companies want the employees to be back to the office, at least for a little bit. This was one of the very shocking, kind of interesting findings, because it was odd, if they already tell a workable and then construct COVID. deliverables, why at all would they want bring people back. And I will talk about this wise in a second. But what is interesting, so kind of biggest, they want a base of the office, but they cannot really force people to be fully back to the office. They all use hybrid. But what was interesting that the hindbrain, when they talk, when they tell you the interview, you know, we're using a hybrid approach hybrid absolutely absurd. So hybrid can be any combination of a mode. And then obviously, one company we interviewed for asking people to come back one day a month. And there was another company that it was thing for people to be back in office three days a week, you know, it's a huge, huge difference. And there was also a huge variety in terms of who decides and bass from a lot fully allowing employees to choose to eliminate at the discretion of in line managers or functional managers, one organisation said, you know, in our finance department, they do one way in our sales department, they do it another way. So it was more like by function. And to some examples, were top manager which is deciding we heard the story when a CEO just send an email without any consultation to all employees saying that from tomorrow, everybody is required to be back to the office Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Eve they live close to 70 miles from the office. And this caused a lot of panic in the organisation, especially in the European offices. People were trying to figure out what 70 mile means in kilometres? And what if you leave 69 miles away? You know, you know, what do you do all of this. And another very surprising finding for me, I wasn't expecting this, you know, from large global companies is that they didn't have clear policy. And most of them explain this is that they are experimenting, they are trying to figure out what will work what will not work. So I was explicitly asking for this. I wanted to see some written documents where you know the rules of the game I explained, but nobody was able to share with me anything around this. And finally, in terms of what they're doing now, we found a lack of training for line managers out of Wales, only two companies provided some type of support for line managers specifically in managing hybrid work. For the rest, the idea was that well, kind of we went through COVID They know how to work in remote mode. So now they don't need any additional support. So the next question was why why based companies will potentially mostly telework slobbering, really willing to bring people back and these are the main themes that we've heard, we really wanted surprise, because these are the same things that were you can see in the media. When you read different interviews that this sell, they were saying, we need to keep up with performance. We're collaborative company, collaboration is important for us. We really want to preserve our culture, our culture is very important. And then kind of reality and fun and joy of being in office. So we thought, okay, if these are your reasons, for bringing people back to the office, let's explore what I've found that in this do, you actually have to prove that things are really the problems that you know, bringing people back to the office will solve and hear the story turned very interesting. So first, in terms of the effect on performance, so in the literature review that I made, looking at all past research, the findings suggest that there is over nine, or some positive impact on employee and also remote team performance from working remotely. So this needs to be treated with a little caution, because as I mentioned, that free college studies, very often, you know, the right to work remotely had to be earned. So it was the best people who were allowed to work remotely. So this might be explaining some of their effects. But anyways, there are no studies that suggest there is a clear negative impact on employee people on X, except actually, for one very recent study that first didn't find, you know, any negative athletes, but they were also able to look at them. Time spent at work. And you know, this frequently used argument that, you know, when employees are allowed to work in a hybrid mode that they spend on commute and they invest, this time spent in commute not only to the leisure activities, but also to work activities. So in this study, they were able to check the timestamp. And what they actually found is that they used manager evaluations of performance. So from this perspective, you know, there was no effect of working remotely on manager rated performance. But if they started accounting for the hours turned, then they realise that employees have put in more hours to deliver the same performance. So from this perspective, maybe there is a decline in performance per hour. But or when we would call it productivity, but it was not anyhow reflected in company level performance, that just employees were working. But when we spoke to John Dewey's about this, everybody was adamant that during fully remote phase, they had outstanding performance, they were very proudly talking that there was no dip in performance. Some of the companies went public during this period, some of them will proudly say that we've really improved our competitive position as well. So I was listening to this introduced and thinking or you just told me that one of the reasons why you want to bring people back to the office is that human to maintain performance. But at the same time, you're telling me that there is no deepen performance and kind of two arguments do not connect. Right. So I started probing into more like individual level performance trends, because as these all are big multinationals, you imagine we build each woman's evaluation systems like annual performance evaluations and things like this. And they had, they could have a look where they any just because they should have data for years so they could see how it was before COVID. What happened during cooperate, what happened after and to my surprise, none of the companies they interviewed did any of this type of analysis and they had a lot of explanation that while individual funds are very tricky to measure and throw a lot of subjectivity in the sheets not informative, not a lot. So basically companies do not know at least the companies we spoke we spoke now next argument, remember was about collaboration. Elaine was saying that we are collaborative company that is why we need people to be back to Bill. While the literature review does indicate from the previous research that remote work can hinder collaboration. And this is both in their pre COVID research. And then the main newest research that was published post COVID. And basically, the key challenges first around informal collaboration, like brainstorming together, people missing this sporadic water cooler conversation that sparks some ideas, you know, this type of the theme, the collaboration elements that suffer. And also, especially the most recent research indicate that people will focus in a collaboration within their immediate team. You know, people whom they already know well and work well together. And, you know, last collaboration across teams, wider in the organisation. And in our interviews, people shared the same concerns, they really were never worried about liberation. But again, they didn't have any data to support these concerns, because remember, they told that they'd be four months for outstanding, they didn't launched a lot of new product. So you think that it means collaboration seems to be working, if they're able to, to produce, outputs and perform well on their company. So that I thought this was more feeling, being worried about a collaboration rather than really evidence that our interviewees could provide. And then remember, diversity and inclusion and argument I mentioned was often used also the poor, and Contra. And also to put the hybrid work and what we found that literature clearly suggests that hybrid work, or remote work tend to be both opportunity and risk. Because on the one hand, it brings new opportunities to access employment, but but at the same time, are the groups that are already at risk of being marginalised or included, for different excluded for different reasons, you know, informal sharing networks and collaborations, they are in a doubled risk of being further excluded. For example, you know, I'm picking just one example of gender, we have some research suggesting that in general, women tend to be excluded from informal ship knowledge sharing networks and organisations. So if this is doubled by this woman working remotely, and the rest of her team is mainly in the office, this can even enhance this potential negative effects. So basically, good literature suggests that, because there are risks both risk and opportunities, this needs to be managed really carefully, that we enhance the opportunities and minimise the risk. And in our interviewees interviews, they all agreed that, you know, hybrid work allows them to access a wider pool of talent, they reported that they were able to hire more diverse people and people with not not neurodivergent employees, that people are located in different time zones. But what we didn't find is that there were no proactive management of this risk. So all of our injuries, talked about opportunities. And sorry, I've seen a typo in the last last line of this slide. So they all were very actively talking about opportunities, and we didn't share any stories about how do they manage the risks, and I thought it was really a very concerning concerning finding. And especially, I mentioned that they do not offer any training for line managers. Because many companies think that a line managers who managed through Club A times they already know how to deal with it. And I think that is a misconception, because when everybody was remote, everybody was kind of in the same mount. In the same boat, everybody's remote. As a line manager, I can apply the same techniques and do the same way for everyone. When employees are given the opportunity to choose, it means that in my team, somebody will be fully in the office, somebody will be hybrid, somebody will be familiar, there is this variety. And this year, right, he brings challenges, you know, power differentials and levels of visibility. And remember in my study one we found that the people who were in hybrid and we mode mode felt that they are less visible to the managers, and that they have higher role conflict and higher rollover mode. So, it means, you know, as a manager, I need action to very consciously approach this. And also, for example, networking relationship building in hybrid form is different compared to where you are when you're always in office. And it's, again, a separate skill that needs to be developed. And we are not all the same in the level of Cisco. So if I summarise all of these ideas from different studies, I think there are several implications both for employees and for managers, from employee perspective, for us individuals, if you're deciding, you know, do I want to work in the office do I want to how many days per week I would like to require from my employer that I am allowed to work remotely? I think in the mass media, currently, the most conversation is going about wellbeing and work life balance. And these are very important considerations. But I do think that your decision needs to be made, if you want to be successful and happy at your job, it needs to be made considering other factors as well. And when this slide lists some days, some of the questions that I think are important to consider, for example, what type of work do you do? Is it more autonomous work? Or is it collaborative work? How much do you depend on others? And if you do dependent on others, what are the work arrangements of these others? Are they also working remotely in hybrid in the office? Would they say come in? Also, what is the work arrangement of your boss and pre COVID? Research has very clearly suggested that, you know, whether the line manager has him or herself experience working remotely, has very significant influence on how they manage the employees working in this mill. And another thing to consider how can we you are in networking, you know, if we know that networking in a fully remote or hybrid world is more difficult, can you manage this? Or if you think this is not your stance, maybe you can do something practically, to increase your skills or develop your skills? And also an important question, what type of support does your organisation offer to your boss in managing hybrid teams and to you in developing your hybrid and remote network and in providing opportunities for connecting with others, and so on and so forth. So I hope when you look at it more comprehensively, you will have a better idea what is the best work is meant for you just beyond that work life balance issue. And from the manager perspective, I think the key idea is to be conscious of the potential biases there, no matter how good you try, you know, it's very difficult to maintain the same level of connection with your employees, with your subordinates. If one person if you're in the office and one person sits next to each other, you're having your tea and lunch together daily, and then another person you see once a month, or once in a two week. So intuitive suggestion would be that if it's possible align work arrangements within your team. Because if everybody is the same, it will be easier for you to manage this. That sad, of course, this is often not possible. And I'm not suggesting that you should be forcing people into something that they are not happy. But if possible, and if something can mean he or she that's like, for example, assurance day that if you know, people are in hybrid mode, know that at least when they are in office, that it's the same day, Wednesday, Monday, whatever is the best day for your team. And also what I suggest is that you map your team hyperlink the configuration and track how it changes. What you may want to do have a look with your team and say, okay, Mary works in a fully remote John works in hybrid. Peter works in a fully in the office not only mapping their hybridity, but also what is the configuration? Is it male or female? Angry? Is it dunya and glue your experienced employee how much of the support they need? And then you start see, you know, where are potential challenges that could be in your team? And what is really important and that is why I put here track how it changes. Because when before COVID when everybody was fully novice, it was relatedly permanent, like, you know, it didn't change from until the month, everybody wasn't the same word tonight, the idea of hybridity and choice means that now, people may change depending on their personal circumstances, you know, for example, their kids grow up to start going to the schools. So they, somebody may need less flexibility around the work from home. For somebody else, on the other hand, you know, their parents may get sick, and they have additional caring responsibilities for elderly. So they want to increase the level of working remotely. So now, from now on, if your organisation goes hybrid, the hybrid of your team will never be permanent, it will be changing, maybe not on a daily basis, but definitely, you know, every half a year or a year, you know, there will be moments between the people who are conventions, and you'd like to understand how this enhances the dynamics of your team. And one more message here is that about communication. And I know that HR leaders that we interviewed meant really well, when they said, you know, we're experimenting, we're trying to figure out what works. That is why wouldn't and have very clear policies. But I'm imagining that, you know, it all looks nice at the top level of the organisation as an idea that when it practice, it means that your employees or your line managers do not know what are the rules of the game. Everybody's making decisions based on the understanding, which can vary. And it may create a lot of cows, a lot of unhappiness, just because the expectations are not clear. You know why my boss tells me I need to come three days a week to the office while in another team in the next office room, you know, the line manager allows them to do what they want. Therefore, the more clarity you have, or the more communicate, and the more you explain to your team members what is going on. You know, it will, it will be very important. And also try to understand the experience and pay perspective. And once you're doing the mapping, and you will realise that, for example, there might be some potential power differentials. Imagine like, again, I'm simply fine. All than come back to the office and though all women in your team remain in a hybrid or fully remote mode, this might be a signal for you. What can I do to make sure that access to resources member level of visibility is equal for them, and the diversity and inclusion issues are not your product. So this moment I stop. I'm happy to answer your questions and only slide I have some links to my LinkedIn profile to my Twitter. Please feel free to connect and I've written two practitioner focused pieces that I have links on this slide that summarise some of the ideas that I shared, that you may find useful